Science NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 deals with several more compounds and their characteristics. This chapter also discusses carbon, an element that is extremely important in both its elemental and mixed forms. Students preparing for their Class 10 exams will get to learn all the basic and complex concepts of carbon and its compounds. It covers all major concepts in detail, allowing students to understand the ideas better. NCERT Carbon and its Compounds Class 10 Solutions the fourth chapter of the section, concentrates on topics such as the varied nature of carbon, bonding in carbon, chemical properties of carbon compounds, the nomenclature of carbon, homologues series, and others that will benefit students of class 10 science in higher classes also. Chapter 4 Science Class 10 Carbon and its Compounds Questions and Answers will serve as a useful tool for recalling various questions at any moment. These NCERT Solutions are important resources that may help you not only cover the entire syllabus but also provide an in-depth study of the subjects. NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 4 has 5 in-text questions and 15 various questions.
Carbon is a necessary ingredient for all life on Earth. Carbon chains are classified into three types: branched, ring, and straight. Carbon is regarded as a significant source of fuel. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent, which means it can form covalent chemical bonds with four electrons. Covalent bonds are formed with oxygen, chlorine, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, and itself. Carbon is one of the most common elements and can be found in a wide variety of compounds, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and carbon disulphide.
Allotropy, also known as allotropism, is the ability of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different physical states. Carbon has 3 types of allotropes –
A homologous series is a group of hydrocarbons that share the same general formula and have similar chemical characteristics. Methane, ethane, propane, butane, and other alkanes, for example, are all members of the alkane homologous series. A CH2 unit separates the molecular formulas of two adjacent members of a homologous series. A general formula can represent all the elements of a homologous series:
Alkane – CnH2n+2
Alkyne – CnH2n-2
Alcohol – CnH2n+1OH
Ketone – CnH2n+1COCnH2n+1
Alkene – CnH2n
Haloalkane – CnH2n+1X
Aldehyde – CnH2n+1CHO
Carboxylic acid – CnH2n+1COOH
C + O2 → CO2 + Heat + Light
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O + Heat + Light
CH4 + Cl2 → CH3Cl + HCl (in the presence of sunlight)
Q1. What are the Importance of Carbon and its Compounds?
Answer: Carbon is a diverse element with a tetravalent configuration and the catenation property. Carbon forms covalent bonds (double and triple bonds) with oxygen, chlorine, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, and itself. Carbon's valence shell contains four electrons, which allows it to share electrons across atoms, resulting in the formation of covalent bonds to fill its peripheral shell. Carbon chains are classified into three types: branched, ring, and straight. Carbon compounds such as ethanoic acid and ethanol are used as detergents and soaps in our daily life. Carbon is also required for fuel, which is a critical natural resource.
Q2. Write a short note on Soap and Detergents.
Answer: Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain carboxylic acid or fatty acid. These acids, together with glycerol, are present in the form of esters (alcohol-containing three hydroxyl groups). When oil or fat (glyceride) is exposed to a sodium hydroxide solution, it is transformed into the sodium salt of the acid (soap) and glycerol. Saponification is the name given to this reaction.
Detergents are typically sodium salts of sulphonic acids or ammonium salts containing chlorides or bromides ions, among other things. The cleaning activity of detergent is thought to be more effective than that of soap. Detergents are commonly utilized in the production of shampoos and cleaning goods.