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# NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 : Transport in Plants

NCERT Solutions for Transport in Plants Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 allows the students to explore the transport in plants that takes place. After going through our simplified and easy solutions made by our team of experts, students will assertively become familiar with the subject well and perform better in their class.

Class 11 Biology is comparatively tougher as it introduces new chapters and terms. In other words, it poses quite a number of problems in understanding the subject well. You need to prepare yourself consequently to excel in your academics. Our Transport in Plants NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 will help you do it in an effective manner. All our study material is prepared following the curriculum and pattern of exams. We also offer you Transport in Plants Class 11 NCERT  PDF downloads.

Transport in Plants Class 11 Notes NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology for Chapter 11 teaches the students about how transport in plants takes place. Subsequently, it discusses the different means of transports in plants. After this chapter, students will be able to understand better the functioning of the plants and their transportation processes. In other words, it will enable them to comprehend the ways of transport in plants and their importance in a simpler way.

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## Access NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 : Transport in Plants

Page Number 193
Question 1
What are the factors affecting the rate of diffusion?
Hard
Solution
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Diffusion is the passive movement of substances from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Explanation:

Factors affecting Rate of diffusion are:

(i) Density- rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to square root of it’s relative density i.e. rate of diffusion decreases with density of the medium.

(ii)  Temperature- rate of diffusion increases with increase in temperature.

(iii) Pressure gradient- rate of diffusion is directly proportional to the difference of pressure at the two ends of the system such that with increase in difference of pressure, the rate of diffusion increases.

(iv) Distance- rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to the distance between the two ends of the system.

E.g., Diffusion may be fast from root hairs to lower parts of stem but might slow down to higher parts of stem or leaves in absence of other forces.

Question 2
What are porins? What role do they play in diffusion?
Medium
Solution
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Explanation:
• The plasma membrane is made up of a lipid bilayer.
• The hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail.
• Porins are proteins that act as a channel for the passage of various biomolecules.
• These are present on the outer membranes of various organelles like mitochondria, plastids, etc.
• They play a very important role in diffusion as they aid in the transportation of biomolecules as per the diffusion gradient.
Question 3
Describe the role played by protein pumps during active transport in plants.
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Solution
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• In plant cells, active transport occurs against the concentration gradient, i.e., from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration.
•  The process of active transport involves specific protein pumps.
• The protein pumps are made up of specific proteins called trans-membrane proteins. These pumps first make a complex with the substance to be transported across the membrane, using the energy derived from ATP.
• The substance finally gets liberated into the cytoplasm as a result of the dissociation of the protein–substance complex.
Question 4
Explain why pure water has the maximum water potential.
Hard
Solution
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Water potential quantifies the tendency of water to move from one part to the other during various cellular processes. It is denoted by the Greek letter Psi or Ψ. The water potential of pure water is always taken as zero at standard temperature and pressure.
It can be explained in terms of the kinetic energy possessed by water molecules. When water is in liquid form, the movement of its molecules is rapid and constant. Pure water has the highest concentration of water molecules. Therefore, it has the highest water potential. When some solute is dissolved in water, the water potential of pure water decreases.
Question 5
Differentiate between the following :
(a) Diffusion and osmosis
(b) Transpiration and evaporation
(c) Osmotic pressure and osmotic potential
(d) Imbibition and diffusion
(e) Apoplast and symplast pathways of movement of water in plants
(f) Guttation and transpiration
Hard
Solution
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(a) Diffusion and osmosis: Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a region of their high concentration to a region of low concentration. The particles can be gas or liquid. Whereas osmosis includes the movement of solvent from a solution of low concentration to a solution of a high concentration of solute across a semi-permeable membrane.
(b) Transpiration and Evaporation : Evaporation is the simple process of conversion of liquid water into water vapours whereas Transpiration is the process of release of water vapours from the stomata of plants
(c) Osmotic potential and osmotic pressure: Osmotic potential is the measure of water potential for its movement through a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration. Whereas osmotic pressure is the equivalent pressure that would be applied to a solution to prevent the flow of water across the semi-permeable membrane.
(d) Imbibition and diffusion: Imbibition is a special phenomenon in which water is absorbed by solid (colloids) in large amounts causing a huge change in their volume whereas diffusion is a simple process of movement of particles from a region of their high concentration to a region of their low concentration.
(e) Apoplast and symplast pathways : Apoplastic movement is the movement of water when it cannot enter the protoplasm and just passed through the cell walls of neighbouring cells and the intercellular spaces whereas the symplastic pathway is the movement of water from a continuous region of cells connected by their protoplasts and here water can enter the protoplasm of the cells.
(f) Guttation is the process of releasing small water droplets from the pores of the plants known as hydathodes whereas the process of Transpiration involves the release of water vapour from the stomata of the plants into the atmosphere.
Question 6
Briefly describe water potential. What are the factors affecting it?
Medium
Solution
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Water potential quantifies the tendency of water to move from one part to the other during various cellular processes such as diffusion, osmosis, etc. It is denoted by the Greek letter Psi or Ψ and is expressed in Pascals (Pa). The water potential of pure water is always taken as zero at standard temperature and pressure.
Water potential (Ψw) is expressed as the sum of solute potential (Ψs) and pressure potential (Ψp).

Ψw = Ψs + Ψp
When some solute is dissolved in water, the water potential of pure water decreases. This is termed as solute potential (Ψs), which is always negative. For a solution at atmospheric pressure, Ψw = Ψs.
The water potential of pure water or a solution increases on the application of pressure values more than atmospheric pressure. It is termed as pressure potential. It is denoted by Ψp and has a positive value, although a negative pressure potential is present in the xylem. This pressure potential plays a major role in the ascent of water through the stem.
Question 7
What happens when a pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure is applied to pure water or a solution?
Hard
Solution
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Explanation:
• If the application of pressure is more than atmospheric pressure, the water potential of pure water or a solution increases.
• Example: When diffusion of water into a plant cell takes place, pressure builds up against the cell wall. This makes the cell wall turgid.
Question 8
(a) With the help of well-labelled diagrams, describe the process of plasmolysis in plants, giving appropriate examples.
(b) Explain what will happen to a plant cell if it is kept in a solution having higher water potential.
Hard
Solution
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(a) Plasmolysis can be defined as the shrinkage of the cytoplasm of a plant cell, away from its cell wall and toward the centre. It occurs because of the movement of water from the intracellular space to the outer-cellular space. This happens when the plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution (i.e., a solution having more solute concentration than the cell cytoplasm). This causes the water to move out of the cell and toward the solution. The cytoplasm of the cell shrinks and the cell is said to be plasmolysed. This process can be observed in an onion peel kept in a highly concentrated salt solution.

(b) When a plant cell is placed in a hypertonic solution or a solution having higher water potential, the water diffuses into the cell (i.e., the movement is observed from higher to lower water pressure region). The entry of water in the plant cell exerts pressure on the rigid cell wall. This is called turgor pressure. As a result of its rigid cell wall, the plant cell does not burst.
Question 9
How is the mycorrhizal association helpful in absorption of water and minerals in plants?
Hard
Solution
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Mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association of fungi with the root systems of some plants. The fungal hyphae either form a dense network around the young roots or they penetrate the cells of the roots. The large surface area of the fungal hyphae is helpful in increasing the absorption of water and minerals from the soil. In return, they get sugar and nitrogenous compounds from the host plants. The mycorrhizal association is obligate in some plants. For example, Pinus seeds do not germinate and establish in the absence of mycorrhizal.
Question 10
What role does root pressure play in water movement in plants?
Medium
Solution
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Root pressure is the positive pressure that develops in the roots of plants by the active absorption of nutrients from the soil. When the nutrients are actively absorbed by root hairs, water (along with minerals) increases the pressure in the xylem. This pressure pushes the water up to small heights. Root pressure can be observed experimentally by cutting the stem of a well-watered plant on a humid day. When the stem is cut, the solution oozes from the cut end.
Root pressure is also linked to the phenomenon of guttation, i.e., the loss of water in the form of liquid droplets from the vein endings of certain herbaceous plants.
Root pressure is only able to transport water up to small heights. However, it helps in re-establishing the continuous chains of water molecules in the xylem. Transpirational pull maintains the flow of water molecules from the roots to the shoots.
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## NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 Transport in Plants  – Brief Overview

11.1 Means of Transport This section will discuss the means of transport in plants. Furthermore, all the process is given in an easy manner which will elaborately describe it. Students will learn in detail about the following processes: 11.1.1 Diffusion- 11.1.2 Facilitated Diffusion 11.1.3 Active Transport 11.1.4 Comparison of Different Transport Processes 11.2 Plant-Water Relations This section will explain the relationship between plant and water. In addition, it elucidates the importance of water for the survival of plants and also their different processes. It further divides into sub-sections of: 11.2.1 Water Potential 11.2.2 Osmosis 11.2.3 Plasmolysis 11.2.4 Imbibition 11.3 Long Distance Transport of Water Over here, students will learn about the different ways in which plants transport water. Furthermore, it discusses the different movements of the long-distance transport of water. It is further divided into sub-topics of: 11.3.1 How do Plants Absorb Water? 11.3.2 Water Movement up a Plant 11.4 Transpiration  Here, it teaches about the process of evaporative loss of water by plants i.e. transpiration. Students will learn as to how it occurs and through what. Moreover, they will study about the properties on which it depends. It contains the following topic: 11.4.1 Transpiration and Photosynthesis – A Compromise 11.5 Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients This part will discuss the uptake and transport of mineral nutrients in the plants. It further explains the role of mineral roles in the uptake and translocation process in plants. You will find the following sub-headings here: 11.5.1 Uptake of Mineral Ions 11.5.2 Translocation of Mineral Ions 11.6 Phloem Transport: Flow from Source to Sink Over here, the students will basically learn about how food transports in plants from the source to sink. It discusses the direction of movement in the phloem and how it functions. It contains the following sub-heading: 11.6.1 The Pressure Flow or Mass Flow Hypothesis

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### Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 : Transport in Plants

Q1. How does transportation in plants take place ?

Answer: The pipe-like vessels in plants help water and minerals to enter inside plants. A group of cells in a plant forms a tissue that performs a specific function. These are called the conducting tissues, known as xylem and phloem. Xylem is a vascular tissue that helps in the transport of water molecules. Phloem is also a vascular tissue that helps in the transportation of food molecules.

Q2. What are the benefits of NCERT Solutions for Chapter 11 Transport in Plants Class 11 Biology?

Answer: There are many benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology. The content is given chapter-wise and in an easy-to-understand language. In Chapter 11, Transport in Plants, all the topics and questions/answers are given in one place, so that it is convenient for the students to study. It has explanations in a detailed as well as precise manner following the CBSE guidelines and is written by Biology professionals.

Q3. Are the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Transport in Plants NCERT Chapter 11 the best study materials for CBSE students?

Answer: Yes, the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 11 are the best study materials for CBSE students. Each and every minute concept is explained in brief to help students score well in the board exam. The solutions not only help students with their board exam preparation but also improves confidence to appear for various competitive exams like JEE, NEET, etc.