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Class 12 Physics

14 Chapters

Class 12


Class 12 Physics explores deeply the various concepts of Physics of class 12 deals with a total of 15 chapters. Electric Charges and Field is the first chapter here that is concerned with electric charges, fields, and functional areas. Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance chapter lets you understand the different electric fields that have varying electrostatic potential. Current Electricity is the next chapter where students will get an in-depth understanding of the electric current. Furthermore, Moving Charges and Magnetism chapter explores the various aspects of the magnetic force. The fifth chapter is Magnetism and Matter takes you deep in the world of magnetism and matter. Electromagnetic Induction chapter lets you move further deep in the study of magnetism and you learn about electromagnetic induction. Moreover, Alternating Current is a small chapter that lets you understand AC voltage and AC circuit in detail. Electromagnetic Waves chapter deals with the electromagnetic spectrum, displacement current, and electromagnetic Waves. Ray Optics and Optical Instruments is all about reflection and various optical instruments that are used. The tenth chapter is wave Optics which familiarizes you with the various properties of wave optics. Another chapter is Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter where students will information about the nature of radiation and its respective properties. Atoms chapter provides you with a detailed understanding of this fundamental unit to all items around us. Another chapter is Nuclei which will deal with an atom’s nucleus, its properties, and its energy. Semiconductor Electronics Materials Devices and Simple Circuits will make you aware of the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Finally, the Communications Systems chapter explores deeply the communication system and its basic elements.

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Electric Charges and FieldsElectrostatic Potential and CapacitanceCurrent ElectricityMoving Charges and MagnetismMagnetism and MatterElectromagnetic InductionAlternating CurrentElectromagnetic WavesRay Optics and Optical InstrumentsWave OpticsDual Nature of Radiation and MatterAtomsNucleiSemiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

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Chapter 1 : Electric Charges and Fields

Electric charge is an important physical property of matter. You might have tried to attract bits of paper with a comb after combing your hair or a plastic ruler after rubbing it in hair. All this happens by virtue of electric charge. In this chapter, we will learn everything about Electric Charges and Fields.

Important topic links

Electric ChargeElectroscopeConductors and InsulatorsCharging by InductionProperties of Electric Charge

Chapter 2 : Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Do you know how energy is stored in your watch's cells? And the principle behind it? Well, an electrostatic force is a force caused by stationary electric charges or fields. The electrostatic force is caused by the transfer of electrons in objects. Here, we will learn about the electrostatic potential and capacitance.

Important topic links

Electrostatic Potential Energy and Potential DifferencePotential Due to Uniform FieldPotential Due to a Point ChargePotential Due to System of ChargesEquipotential Surfaces

Chapter 3 : Current Electricity

You’re sitting there in your room and reading this. But either way, you’re using the internet. Also, the bulb that glows, the computers we use works on electricity. What would happen if this current electricity were to disappear? Today everything works on electricity. So let us learn about Current Electricity.

Important topic links

Electric CurrentOhm's LawDrift Velocity & MobilityLimitations of Ohm's LawElectrical Resistance & Resistivity

Chapter 4 : Moving Charges and Magnetism

It was hard to believe for a very long time that there existed a relationship between electricity and magnetism! Oersted observed that a pivoted magnet was deflected when kept near a wire carrying electric current. Oersted thus demonstrated that magnetic effects could be produced by moving electric charges.

Important topic links

Magnetic FieldLorentz ForceForce on Current Carrying ConductorMotion of Charged Particle in Magnetic Field and Electric FieldBiot-Savart Law

Chapter 5 : Magnetism and Matter

Opposites attract'. You must have heard this saying quite a lot. Isn't it? But where does it originate from? And why exactly do opposites attract? What makes like poles repulsive? Mr. Magnet is here to answer all of the questions. So let us hop in his magnetic car and explore the world of magnetism and matter. 

Important topic links

Properties of Magnetic FieldBar Magnet and SolenoidElectrostatic and Magnetic AnalogyEarth's MagnetismDiamagnetic Material

Chapter 6 : Electromagnetic Induction

Whenever you go shopping and if you’re cashless, you use cards, the shopkeeper always swipes the card. He never taps the card or takes a photo of it. How does this swiping deduct money from the card? This happens because of electromagnetic induction. Let us study electromagnetic induction further along with lenz law.

Important topic links

Introduction to Electromagnetic InductionMagnetic FluxFaraday's and Lenz's LawProblems on Electromagnetic InductionMotional EMF

Chapter 7 : Alternating Current

Do you know what type of current flows into the wires running inside your house? And in which form the electricity is being transferred from the power plant to the industries? You know about the transformers? Well, most of the above mechanisms work on the principle of the alternating current. Let's study more.

Important topic links

AC Voltage Applied to an ResistorAC Voltage Applied to an InductorAC Voltage Applied to an CapacitorLCR circuitsResonance

Chapter 8 : Electromagnetic Waves

Have you ever wondered the mechanism behind receiving signals in your mobile or TV? What is a light spectrum? And why some part of the light rays are visible to the naked eye and some are not? Let's find out more about the electromagnetic waves and spectrum and the displacement current in the topics below.

Important topic links

Introduction to Electromagnetic WavesDisplacement CurrentThe Nature of Electromagnetic WavesElectromagnetic SpectrumProperties and Uses of Different Radiation

Chapter 9 : Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Do you know that the human eye is not sensitive to all the visible lights? Light plays an important role to view the objects around us. What is the study of light? To know this let us understand the term ray optics and discuss it in detail.

Important topic links

Reflection and Laws of ReflectionReflection at Plane SurfaceSpherical MirrorsMirror Formula and MagnificationProblems on Mirror and Magnification Formula

Chapter 11 : Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, Maxwell's equations established that light was an electromagnetic wave. However, in the beginning of the twentieth century, scientists unravelled one of the best-kept secrets of nature - the wave particle duality. Matter and radiations had a dual nature. Let's learn in detail!

Important topic links

Photons and Photoelectric EffectStopping Potential and Einstein's Photoelectric EquationWave Nature of Matter

Chapter 12 : Atoms

Everything we see around us is made up of something. For instance, table is made from wood, wood in-turn comes from trees and, trees come from seed. Now, these seeds are made up of tiny matter called 'Atom'. But what is an atom made of? Let us find out.

Important topic links

Introduction to Atomic StructureAlpha Particle & Rutherford ModelAtomic Spectra and Spectral SeriesBohr's Model

Chapter 13 : Nuclei

Everything is made up of Atoms and the Nucleus is the central and most important part of the Nucleus. Majority of the mass of the atom is concentrated in the Nucleus. The Nucleus comprises of Protons and Neutrons. In this chapter, we will learn everything about the Nuclei.

Important topic links

Nuclear StructureNuclear ReactionsNuclear Force and Binding EnergyIntroduction to RadioactivityFirst Order Radioactive Decay

Chapter 14 : Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Important topic links

Energy BandsIntrinsic and Extrinsic SemiconductorsIntroduction to Diodesp-n Junction DiodeDiode as Rectifier