Changes within the nucleus in alpha, beta and gamma emission
Alpha emission: If the nucleus of a radioactive element X of mass number A and atomic number Z emits an α particle, a new element Y (daughter nucleus) is formed which has mass number equal to (A-4) and atomic number equal to (Z-2). Thus due to emission of an alpha particle, atomic number Z decreases by two units and mass number decreases by 4 units. Beta emission: In emitting a beta particle the number of nucleons in the nucleus (i.e. protons and neutrons) remain same, but the number of nuetrons is decreased by one and the number of protons is increased by one. Gamma emission: In emitting gamma particle there is no change in mass number A and atomic number Z of the nucleus.