Ancient Civilizations of the World

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The Egyptian civilization

The Egyptian civilisation developed around the river Nile. The relics obtained here proclaim the grandeur of Egypt. Huge pyramids, sculptures, temples and the inscriptions in these temples tells us a lot about Egyptian culture and history. The Egyptians created a way of writing using hieroglyphs, built huge temples and tombs, traded with other areas, and had a powerful army. Their religion had many gods, and its priests were powerful and rich. Their rulers, called Pharaohs, were thought to be close to the gods.

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Ziggurat

The Sumerians, the hilly tribe from the north, were the first to come to Mesopotamia. They used to worship their gods on top of the hills. After coming to the plains, they built artificial hills and established their places of worship there. These were called Ziggurat. Since they did not know how to build stairs, they surrounded them with sloping galleries. 

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The Contribution of the Egyptians

The Egyptians were expert farmers. They knew a lot about irrigation. They had built temples. They invented the calendar which has helped us to measure time. They had mastered the art of writing. It was a symbolic language. It consists of small writings and has been called hieroglyphics (sacred writings).

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The Chinese Civilisation

The Chinese civilisation developed around the Hwang Ho river. The First ruling family of the Chinese civilisation was the Shang dynasty. The Shang kings spent quite some time in conquests and battles. Hence the army was in prominence. The people of the Shang dynasty depended on agriculture. They used to grow plenty of rice. Under the rule of this dynasty, the people had developed a wonderful culture by the 14th century B.C. The Shang dynasty was overpowered by the neighbouring Chou dynasty. The Chinese wore thin cotton dresses. They used silk too, and engaged in silkworm rearing. They made excellent pots and had learnt to make various objects from porcelain. The Chinese worshipped their ancestors which was a part of their customs. The Chinese tradition of writing began with pictures and got transformed into an ideographic script. Porcelain and the Great Wall of China are the exceptional contributions of this culture.

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The Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia has been called the 'cradle of civilisation' because agriculture, animal herding and domestication developed there earlier than anywhere else, almost 8,000 years ago. By 3,000 BC, the Mesopotamians had already invented the wheel, developed writing, and created the world's first cities and monumental architecture. The Sumerians were the first to evolve a system of writing in Mesopotamia. The system of writing was called Cuneiform. Babylonia was the most important area of this civilisation.