Climate, Soil, Natural Vegetation and Animals of Rajasthan

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Seasons of Rajasthan

Rajasthan has three climatic seasons. They are summer season (March to June), rainy season (July to September) and winter season (October to February).

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Rajasthan rivers draining in Bay of Bengal

The rivers Chambal, Kalisindh, Parvati, Banas, Bedach and their tributaries originate from the eastern side of Aravali mountains and drain in the Bay of Bengal.

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The main rivers of Rajasthan

The main rivers of Rajasthan are as follows:
1. Chambal
2. Banas
3. Luni
4. Mahi
5. Banganga
6. Ghaghar

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Summer season of Rajasthan

In this season, the temperature normally above 30 to 34 degree centigrade. The temperature even reaches 40 to 45 degree centigrade in Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Sriganganagar, Churu etc. Thar desert is the hottest region of Rajasthan because of presence of sand. Sand heats fast and cools fast too. Therefore, the temperature of the desert rises in the day and falls at night. This increases daily and annual range of temperature. In this season, Mt. Abu is the coolest place because of its high altitude.

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Rajasthan rivers draining in Arabian Sea

Mahi, Luni, Sabarmati, western Banas and their tributaries originate in western parts of Aravali mountains and drain in the Arabian Sea. 

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The main river valley projects of Rajasthan

The main river valley projects of Rajasthan are as follows:
1. Chambal Project (4 dams are built under this project)
2. Mahi Bajaj Sagar Project
3. Bisalpur Project
4. Sardar Sarovar Project
5. Jawai Project
6. Som-Kamla-Amba Project
7. Mansi Wakal Project 
8. Jakham Project

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Rainy season of Rajasthan

In Rajasthan, 90-95% rainfall occurs in rainy season from July to September due to monsoon winds. The state gets more rainfall from the Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon. Southern Rajasthan receives most of the rain from Arabian branch of monsoon. The highest rainfall occurs in Jhalawar district (100 cm) which is the most humid district of Rajasthan. The lowest rainfall occurs in Jaisalmer (approximately 10 cm). The place which receives maximum rainfall is Mt. Abu (150 cm). 

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Internal drainage system of Rajasthan

The internal parts of Rajasthan are drained by rivers like Chambal, Ghaghar, Banganga, Kantali, Saabi, Ruparail, Menda, etc.

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The main canals of Rajasthan

The main canals of Rajasthan include:
1. Ganga Canal
2. Indira Gandhi Canal
3. Bharatpur Canal

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Winter season of Rajasthan

The temperatures falls gradually in winter season in Rajasthan. In western Rajasthan due to excessive cooling of land the temperatures may even fall down to 0 degree centigrade. Mt. Abu is very cold in this season. The sky remains clear and the winds blow slowly. The winds coming from Himalayas are called cold waves or 'sheet lehar' in Rajasthan.

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Drought in Rajasthan

Rainfall is periodic, insufficient, indefinite and irregular in Rajasthan and its distribution is also unequal. Therefore, the state suffers from drought and famine regularly. Most of the regions of western Rajasthan have droughts almost every year. This leads to scarcity of fodder and water for animals, and shortage of grains and water for humans. This type of condition is called famine. 
Desertification: When fertile land becomes barren and sandy due to physical and human activities, the process is known as desertification. The desert is spreading regularly in western parts of Rajasthan but efforts are being made to reduce it by serial planting.

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Climate and soil of Rajasthan plain

The Rajasthan Plain is a the Marusthali or the Great Indian Desert. The temperature during day is high and low during night. It goes down to C in winter and C summer. The annual range of temperature is C. Rainfall is scanty and uncertain.
The soils of this plain is generally sandy in texture. This soil is fertile but dry in nature. The region has four types of soils - (1) Highly saline desert soil, (2) Red desert soil, (3) Yellowish brown sandy soil, (4) Alluvial soil in Luni Basin and Ghaggar plain.

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Distribution of soil in Rajasthan

Alluvial soil is predominantly deposited in north-east region of Rajasthan whereas sandy soil is found in Thar Desert of western Rajasthan. Black soil is predominantly found in south-east Hadoti region. Black loamy and red-black soil is found in Aravali region. Basic soil is found in canal irrigated region.

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Types of soil in Rajasthan

The types of soil in Rajasthan are as follows:
1. Sandy soil
2. Red loamy soil
3. Mixed red-black soil
4. Grey sandy alluvial soil
5. Grey sandy soil
6. Red-yellow soil
7. Medium black soil
8. Alluvial soil

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Natural vegetation and animal life of Rajasthan Plain

The natural vegetation of this dry area is classified as Natural Desert Thorn Forest. The whole region is largely sandy and bare rocks are exposed. Tree, shrub and herb species found mostly in this vegetation are khair, phog, beri, khejri, cactus, babul, Eucalyptus, Acacia, Cassia and Jojoba. Animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to other deserts of the world. Lizards, snakes, blackbuck, Indian Gazelle, Red fox and wild cats are found in large numbers.

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Factors affecting formation of soil

Soils are derived from parent rock material through a process of breakup or wear and tear. Decomposed vegetal and animal remains, referred to as humus is an important constituent of soil and adds to the fertility of the soil. Besides humus, silica, clay and sand are the other factors affecting the formation of soil.