Conservation of Biodiversity - In-situ and Ex-situ


Important national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserves

Bandhipur National ParkKarnatakaIndian bison, chital, sloth bear, elephant
Corbett National Park UttaranchalTiger, chital, elephant, leop-ard, jungle cat and sloth bear.
Gir National ParkGujaratAsiatic lion
Kanha National ParkMadhya PradeshDeer, tiger, wilddog, chital.
Bharathpur Bird SanctuaryRajasthan374 species of birds, e.g., Indian darters, spoonbills, painted stock, open billed stork, black necked stork etc.
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary AssamHispid hare (rere), pygmy hog, golden langur
Sunderbans National Park West BengalUnique royal Bengal tigers.


Gene bank

  • Gene banks are a type of biorepository which preserve genetic material.


Strategies for conservation of biodiversity

In-situ conservation, the conservation of species in their natural habitats, is considered the most appropriate way of conserving biodiversity. Conserving the areas where populations of species exist naturally is an underlying condition for the conservation of biodiversity. That's why protected areas form a central element of any national strategy to conserve biodiversity.

Ex-situ conservation is the preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. This involves the conservation of genetic resources of major crop plants and their wild relatives or species and draws on a diverse body of techniques and facilities. Some of these include:

1. Gene banks, e.g., seed banks, sperm and ova banks, field banks;
2. In vitro plant tissue and microbial culture collections;
3. Captive breeding of animals and artificial propagation of plants, with possible reintroduction into the wild; and
4. Collecting living organisms for zoos, aquaria, and botanic gardens for research and public awareness.


Botanical garden

1. A botanical garden is an educational institution for scientific workers and laymen to awake interest in plant life. 
2. In general, a botanical garden represents a collection of living plants designed chiefly to illustrate relationships within plant groups.
3. They provide facilities for the collection of living plant material for biosystematic studies and constitutes reservoirs of valuable heritable characteristics, potentially important in the breeding of new varieties of plants.