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Equipotential Lines And Equipotential Surfaces

Physics

diagram

Gravitational Equipotential Surface

Gravitational equipotential surface is the locus of points which are at the same potential. Electric field in a space is always perpendicular to the equipotential surfaces and zero along the plane of equipotential surfaces.
Example:
For a point charge,
constant, constant.
Hence for a point charge, equipotential surfaces are concentric spheres centered at the point charge.

definition

Equipotential surfaces

Surfaces having same potential are termed as equipotential surfaces
The properties of equipotential surfaces can be summarized as follows:
  • The electric field lines are normal to the equipotentials and are directed from higher to lower potentials. 
  • By symmetry, the equipotential surfaces produced by a point charge form a family of concentric spheres, and for a constant electric field, a family of planes normal to the field lines. 
  • The tangential component of the electric field along the equipotential surface is zero, otherwise non-vanishing work would be done to move a charge from one point on the surface to the other.
  • Work done in moving a particle along an equipotential surface is zero.