Factors Affecting India's Climate

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Impact of Himalayas and Monsoon wind on climate

The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. It is because of these mountains that this subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to central Asia. The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds.

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El Nino and La Nina

In El Nino events, periodic shifts in wind speed and direction in the tropical eastern Pacific can lead to changes in sea-surface temperatures. In this, prevailing easterly winds weaken or give way to westerly winds. As El Nino cools, it becomes La Nina. La Nina affects the Atlantic hurricanes.

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Impact of Latitudes and Altitudes on Indian climate

Latitude: The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country. Almost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer, belongs to the tropical area. All the remaining area, north of the Tropic, lies in the sub-tropics.Therefore, Indias climate has characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climates.
Altitude: 
India has mountains to the north, which have an average height of about 6,000 metres. The Himalayas prevent the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent. It is because of these mountains that this subcontinent experiences comparatively milder winters as compared to central Asia.

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Impact of surrounding seas and western disturbances on Indian climate

Impact of surrounding seas: The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates low pressure on the landmass of India while the seas around experience comparatively high pressure. 
Impact of western disturbances: The western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the north and north-western parts of the country are brought in by this westerly flow. In summer, the subtropical westerly jet stream moves north of the Himalayas with the apparent movement of the sun. An easterly jet stream blows over peninsular India.

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El Nino and Jet Stream effect on Indian climate

Jet stream effect: The movement of the westerly jet stream to the north of the Himalayas and the presence of the tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian peninsula during summer.
El Nino: This is a name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of the cold Peruvian current. The presence of the El Nino leads to an increase in sea-surface temperatures and weakening of the trade winds in the region.