Freedom Struggle (1905-1916)



Bal Gangadhar Tilak's contribution as an assertive nationalist

Bal Gangadhar Tilak is known as the 'Father of Assertive Nationalism'. He played a leading role in popularising the cult of patriotism and making the Congress movement broad-based. He was the first to openly declare the demand for Swaraj. He believed that political rights could be achieved by aggressively demanding them. He started two newspapers through which he preached nationalism. He started the Home Rule League in Pune in 1916.


Discuss about the scheme of Bengal's partition

Lord Curzon announced the division of province of Bengal on July 20, 1905. As per the scheme, 'Bengal' province included western districts of Bengal proper, Bihar and Odisha with Calcutta as its capital. Eastern Bengal and Assam province included eastern districts of Bengal proper and Assam with Dacca as its capital.  


Brief discussion about anti-partition movement

The Partition of Bengal led to a mighty upsurge which brought people and political leaders together. The Anti-Partition Movement was initiated on August 7, 1905. On that day, a massive demonstration against the partition was organised in Kolkata. From this meeting, the delegates dispersed to spread the movement to the rest of the province.


Explain about the Home Rule League

The Home Rule Movement was an important step towards the demand for independence. Home Rule meant self-government within the British Empire. Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant decided to use the term Home Rule since the British did not like the word 'Swaraj' which they considered as 'seditious and dangerous'.


Bipin Chandra Pal's contribution as assertive nationalist

Bipin Chandra Pal is known as the 'Father of the Revolutionary Thought in India'. He propagated his brand of nationalism through newspapers such as The Tribune. He opposed the caste-system, advocated widow-remarriage. His programme consisted of Swadeshi, boycott and National Education.


Brief introduction about Muslim League

'All-India Muslim League' was set up on December 30, 1906 at Dacca under the presidentship of Nawab Salimullah. Agha Khan was elected as permanent president of the Muslim League. Its constitution was accepted at a meeting held at Karachi on December 29, 1907. The first regular session of the League was held in December 1908 at Amritsar under the chairmanship of Syed Ali Imam.


Lala Lajpat Rai's contribution as assertive nationalist

Lala Lajpat Rai, popularly known as 'Punjab Kesari' or 'Sher-e-Punjab', was a prolific writer, an educationist and a social reformer. He founded publications such as 'Punjabi' and 'Vande Mataram' and 'People' to spread the message of the right of Indians to attain Swaraj. He was instrumental in the expansion of D.A.V. College at Lahore. He was associated with the Arya Samaj Movement.


Discuss about the Swadeshi and Boycott movement

'Swadeshi' literally means 'of one's own country'. The Swadeshi movement aimed at the promotion of indigenous industries for strengthening the nation. Boycott movement meant 'abstaining from the purchase of British goods' which included the boycott of English cloth, salt, sugar, etc. 


Freedom Struggle (1870s-1885)


Freedom Struggle (1885-1905)


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