Freedom Struggle (1930-1940)



Discuss about Pakistan resolution

The Muslim League raised the demand for Pakistan in 1930 and in the 1940 session of League at Lahore, Jinnah put forward his two-nation theory. Thus, despite severe opposition from Gandhiji, the country shifted towards partition.


Explain Dandi March

On March 12, 1930 Mahatma Gandhi began the historic march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a village on the Gujarat sea coast. A number of people followed him. On the morning of 6th April, Gandhiji violated the Salt Laws at Dandi by picking up some salt left by the seawaves. Gandhiji's breaking of the Salt Laws marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.


Progress of the movement

The Civil Disobedience Movement spread rapidly. Violation of Salt Laws all over the country was soon followed by defiance of forest laws and refusal to pay the rural chaukidari tax in Eastern India. People joined hartals, demonstrations and campaigns to boycott foreign goods and refused to pay taxes. It resulted in mass strikes and setting up of parallel governments in several places.


Round table conferences during Civil Disobedience Movement

The Indian Round Table Conference held three sessions which are also referred to as the first, second and third Round Table Conferences. The First Round Table Conference was held in London. The Second Round Table Conference was attended by Gandhiji as a sole representative of the Congress according to the terms of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The Third Conference was convened in 1932 but the Congress boycotted it. 


Explain the impact of the Civil Disobedience Movement

 It shattered people's faith in the British government. It revived the will to fight the elections. It deepened the social roots for the freedom struggle. It popularised new methods of propaganda like the Prabhat Pheris, pamphlets, etc.


Programme of the Civil Disobedience Movement

Civil Disobedience Movement involved:
i) Defiance of salt laws,
ii) Boycott of liquor,
iii) Boycott of foreign cloth and British goods of all kinds,
iv) Non-payment of taxes and revenues.