Habitat and Adaptations of Animals
Adaptations in aquatic ecosystem
Euphotic zone- The organisms living in this zone are mostly floaters and swimmers.
- There are two types of aquatic ecosystem present- marine and fresh water.
- Aquatic adaptations are as follows-
- Presence of special air spaces inside bodies
- Presence of flippers or fins
- Microscopic plants have oil droplets to keep them floating
- Large plants have flexible stems
- The marine dwellers have osmoregulation system in their body to regulate water balance
- Many marine mammals have blubber to regulate their body temperature.
- Marine adaptation on the basis of light penetration-
Bathyal zone- Most of the plants of this zone are red and brown kelps, songes, corals. Animals have tubular bodies of this zone.
Abyssal zone- Here mainly deep sea animals, mostly predators and scavengers are present.
Adaptations in desert ecosystem
Hump - stores fat for later use
- Organisms create adaptable situations around them on the basis of their needs, called as adaptation.
- Plants living in desert reduces leaves to spines, to stop transpirational loss of water (e.g., kalabanda), store water in the stem, called as succulent stems.
- Desert plants are called as xerophytes.
- Some desert plants show stone like swollen leaves to reduce water loss. E.g., pebble plants.
- Desert adaptations of animals-
Long eye lash - protects from sand
Voluntarily closing nostrils - protects from sand
Long legs - keeps body away from hot ground
- The side-winder adder snake crawl sideways to keep body cool.
- Animals swim through the sand to escape the heat. E.g., golden mole rat.
- Some animals show physiological changes to adapt with desert environment. E.g., kangaroo rat (synthesises water through digestion)
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