Habitat and Adaptations of Animals


Adaptations in aquatic ecosystem

  • There are two types of aquatic ecosystem present- marine and fresh water.
  • Aquatic adaptations are as follows-
  • Presence of special air spaces inside bodies
  • Presence of flippers or fins
  • Microscopic plants have oil droplets to keep them floating
  • Large plants have flexible stems
  • The marine dwellers have osmoregulation system in their body to regulate water balance
  • Many marine mammals have blubber to regulate their body temperature.
  • Marine adaptation on the basis of light penetration-
Euphotic zone- The organisms living in this zone are mostly floaters and swimmers.
Bathyal zone- Most of the plants of this zone are red and brown kelps, songes, corals. Animals have tubular bodies of this zone.
Abyssal zone- Here mainly deep sea animals, mostly predators and scavengers are present.


Adaptations in desert ecosystem

  • Organisms create adaptable situations around them on the basis of their needs, called as adaptation.
  • Plants living in desert reduces leaves to spines, to stop transpirational loss of water (e.g., kalabanda), store water in the stem, called as succulent stems.
  • Desert plants are called as xerophytes.
  • Some desert plants show stone like swollen leaves to reduce water loss. E.g., pebble plants.
  • Desert adaptations of animals- 
Hump - stores fat for later use
Long eye lash - protects from sand
Voluntarily closing nostrils -  protects from sand
Long legs - keeps body away from hot ground
  • The side-winder adder snake crawl sideways to keep body cool.
  • Animals swim through the sand to escape the heat. E.g., golden mole rat.
  • Some animals show physiological changes to adapt with desert environment. E.g., kangaroo rat (synthesises water through digestion)