In-situ and Ex-situ Conservation


Wild life sanctuary

  • Wild life sanctuaries is an area of protected land that provide protection and suitable living conditions to wild animals, killing or capturing of animals are strictly prohibited in a wild life sanctuary.
  • Some of the threatened wild animals like black buck, marsh crocodile, rhinoceros etc. are protected and preserved in wild life sanctuaries. Wildlife Sanctuaries are the protected areas in which human interference
    are not allowed.
  • These areas are completely free from the any kind of human renovation. Hunting and other related activities are also not allowed in these reserves.


Important Sanctuaries in Tamilnadu

Indira Gandhi Wildlife SanctuaryWestern Ghatstiger, leopard, porcupine, nilgiris thar, civet cat, elephant, gaur, pangolin.
Kalakkadu Wildlife
Tirunelveli districtlion tailed macaque, sambhar, sloth bear, gaur, flying squirrel.
Srivilliputhur Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife SanctuaryVirudhunagar districtgrizzled squirrels, mouse deer, barking deer, tree shrew
Vedanthangal Bird SanctuaryKancheepuram districtcormorants, egrets, grey heron, open-billed stork, white bears, shovellers, pintails, stets, sandpipers
Mudumalai Wildlife SanctuaryThe Nilgiriselephants, gaur, langur, tigers, leopards, sloth bear, sambhar, wildbear, jackal, porcupine, mangoose
ViralimalaiTrichy districtwild peacocks
Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park. Coast of Ramnad and
Tuticorin district.
coral reefs, dugong, turtles, dolphins, balanoglossus, 
Mundhanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary.Tirunelvelli districttiger, bonnet macaque, langurs, sloth bear, wild dog.
Vallanadu Blackbuck
Tuticorin districtblackbuck, jungle cat, hare, mongoose.
Arignar Anna Zoological ParkVandalurlion, elephant, tiger, monkey.
Mukkurthi National ParkThe Nilgiristigers.
Point Calimere Wildlife SanctuaryNagapattinam districtchital, wild bear, plovers, stilts, bonnet macaque
Anaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary
Slopes of Western Ghats.
civet cat, porcupine, gaur, tiger, leopard, nilgiri tahr.


National park

  • National Park is an area reserved for wildlife where they can freely use the habitats and natural resource. Like khajiranga national park.

  • National park contains extremely important habitats and species. This is protected areas in which human interference are not allowed. These areas are completely free from the any kind of human renovation. Hunting and other related activities are also not allowed in these reserves.
  • The main aim of a national park is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage present in it.
  • To promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the special qualities (of the Park) by the public.


Role of zoological parks in wildlife conservation

1. The zoological park is involved in the rescue of many species threatened with extinction.
2. The crocodile rehabilitation project is being run by FAO to rehabilitate crocodiles.
3. Himalayan Musk Deer is bred at Kufri.
4. Attempts have been made for the preservation of Blackbuck, Sambar and Spotted Deer.


Strategies for conservation of biodiversity

In-situ conservation, the conservation of species in their natural habitats, is considered the most appropriate way of conserving biodiversity. Conserving the areas where populations of species exist naturally is an underlying condition for the conservation of biodiversity. That's why protected areas form a central element of any national strategy to conserve biodiversity.

Ex-situ conservation is the preservation of components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. This involves the conservation of genetic resources of major crop plants and their wild relatives or species and draws on a diverse body of techniques and facilities. Some of these include:

1. Gene banks, e.g., seed banks, sperm and ova banks, field banks;
2. In vitro plant tissue and microbial culture collections;
3. Captive breeding of animals and artificial propagation of plants, with possible reintroduction into the wild; and
4. Collecting living organisms for zoos, aquaria, and botanic gardens for research and public awareness.


Famous national parks of India

1. Corbett National Park (Uttarakhand); 2. Kaziranga National Park (Assam); 3. Ranthambore National Park (Rajasthan); 4. Periyar National Park (Kerala); 5. Gir Wildlife Sanctuary (Gujarat); 6. Kanha National Park (Madhya Pradesh); 7. Sundarbans National Park (West Bengal); 8. Mudumalai National Park (Karnataka); 9. Bandipur National Park (Karnataka); and 10. Bandhavgarh National Park (Madhya Pradesh).