Factors influencing the distribution and density of population in India are as follows: (1) Terrain (2) Climate (3) Soil (4) Water bodies (5) Mineral resources (6) Industries (7) Transport and (8) Urbanisation.
National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 includes immediate objective of addressing the unmet needs for contraception, healthcare infrastructure and health personnel and child health care. The medium-term objective of this policy is to bring the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) to replacement level. The long-term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045.
Optimum population is that size of population that enables maximum per capita output by the highest possible living standards under a given set of economic and technological conditions. It is a theoretically perfect situation, but difficult to estimate or define. Optimum population means each person has access to adequate food, water, energy and air of highest quality, adequate medical care, recreational facilities and cultural outlets.