Introduction to Constitution

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Philosophy of Indian Constitution

The Preamble of the Constitution reads like a poem on democracy. It contains the philosophy on which the entire Constitution has been built. It provides a standard to examine and evaluate any law and action of government, to find out whether it is good or bad. It is the soul of the Indian Constitution.

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Formation of the Constituent Assembly

Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in December 1946. Soon after, the country was divided into India and Pakistan. The Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan. The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian constitution had 299 members. The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949 but it came into effect on 26 January 1950. To mark this day we celebrate January 26 as Republic Day every year.

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Composition of the Constituent Assembly

The Constituent Assembly was elected mainly by the members of the existing Provincial Legislatures. This ensured a fair geographical share of members from all the regions of the country. The Assembly was dominated by the Indian National Congress, the party that led India's freedom struggle. But the Congress itself included a variety of political groups and opinions. The Assembly had many members who did not agree with the Congress. In social terms too, the Assembly represented members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations.

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Drafting Committee

The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. A drafting committee under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was formed. The drafting committee prepared a draft of constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause. More than two thousand amendments were considered. The members deliberated for 114 days spread over three years. 

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India as a Republic

A democratic country where the head of the country is elected is known as Republic. Our President is an elected executive head. Thus, our country is known as Democratic-Republic. In some of the democratic countries, the head is not elected but acquire the headship through heredity (King or Queen as in England).

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India as a Republic

A democratic country where the head of the country is elected is known as Republic. Our President is an elected executive head. Thus, our country is known as Democratic-Republic. In some of the democratic countries, the head is not elected but acquire the headship through heredity (King or Queen as in England). There is another form of the government which is known as dictatorship where the ruling power rests with a single dictator or group of dictators.

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Meaning of the Constitution

Constitution is a legal document according to which the country is governed. The centre, as well as the state governments, are all run according to the constitution. The Constitution is considered to be the supreme law.

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Dr. B.R. Ambedkar's contribution to the Indian Constitution

On August 29, 1947, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting Committee that was constituted by Constituent Assembly to draft a Constitution for Independent India. He gave free India its legal framework, and the people, the basis of their freedom. To this end, Dr. Ambedkar's contribution was significant, substantial, and spectacular. Dr. Ambedkars contribution to the evolution of free India lies in his striving for ensuring justice - social, economic and political - for one and all.

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Preamble of the Indian Constitution

The Preamble of Constitution serves the following purposes as the matters of its importance:
(1) It indicates the source from which the Constitution comes into existence, i.e. the people of India.
(2) It contains the enacting clause which brings into force the Constitution.
(3) It declares the rights and freedoms which the people of India intended to secure to all citizens and the basic structure of the Government and the polity which was to be established.