Judiciary (Basic)



Structure of courts in India

The Indian judiciary consists of a Supreme Court for the entire nation, High Courts in the states, District Courts and the courts at local level. India has an integrated judiciary. It means the Supreme Court controls the judicial administration in the country. Its decisions are binding on all other courts of the country. 


Accessibility of the court

In principle, all citizens of India can access the courts in this country. This implies that every citizen has a right to justice through the courts. While the courts are available for all, in reality access to courts has always been difficult for a vast majority of the poor in India. Legal procedures involve a lot of money and paperwork as well as take up a lot of time.


Role of the judiciary

Broadly speaking, the work that the judiciary does can be divided into the following:
i) Dispute Resolution;
ii) Judicial Review;
iii) Upholding the Law and Enforcing Fundamental Rights.


Indian Judiciary

Under the Constitution of India, the judiciary is a single integrated system of courts for the Union and the States with the Supreme Court at the apex. Our judiciary is independent of the Legislature and Executive. The High Courts, Subordinate Courts and District Courts function under the Supreme Court. The Constitution, various Acts, conventions and precedents of cases are the basis for judicial judgements. The judgement of the Supreme Court is final.


Need for single independent judiciary

Need for a single independent judiciary:
(i) In a representative democracy, administration of justice assumes special significance in view of the rights of individuals, which needs protection against executive or legislative interference. This protection is given by making the judiciary independent of the other two organs of the government.
(ii) An independent and supreme judiciary is also an essential requirement of a federal governance.
(iii) Such a judiciary is essential for ensuring human rights and protecting democracy.

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