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Montane Forest

Geography

definition

Mountain forests

"Montane Forest is ecosystem found in mountains. It gets affected by colder climate at moderate elevations. In these areas dense forest are common. In Mountain Forest, rainfall and temperate climate leads to change in natural vegetation. 

The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of 1000 and 2000 metres. Between 1500 and 3000 metres, temperate forests containing coniferous trees are found. At higher elevations, temperate grasslands are common. At high altitudes, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines, cedar and birches are the common trees of these forests."

definition

Alpine forests of Himalayas

The Alpine vegetation includes trees like silver fir, junipers, pines and birches. However, they get progressively stunted as they approach the snow-line. Ultimately through shrubs and scrubs, they merge into the Alpine grasslands.

definition

Mountainous forests of Himalayan Ranges

In the Himalayan mountainous region, due to increasing altitude and decreasing temperature, a difference in natural vegetation is seen.
  • In the Shivalik Ranges, at an altitude of 1000 meters in the foothill region, Bhabar and Tarai tropical deciduous forests are found. 
  • It is then succeeded by temperate moist evergreen forests between 1000 and 2000 meters. These are the dense forests with tall trees. Oak and Chestnut are found on eastern Himalayas and Pine on western Himalayas. 
  • At an altitude of 2000 to 3000 meters forests of Deodar, Silver fur, and Spruce are sparsely distributed. Sal is mainly found at low altitudes. On the slopes of the high altitude mountains, where temperature is low and rainfall is less than 100 cms dry temperate vegetation similar to that of the Mediterranean vegetation is found. Olive, Babool and hard Savanna grass is found with Oak and Deodar trees. 
  • Alpine vegetation is found between the altitude of 3000 to 4000 meters. These are less dense forests and the height of the trees decreases towards the Snowline. At higher altitudes alpine pastures are found. Silver fur, Juniper, Birch and Pine are the main species of these forests.