Discuss about Khilafat MovementIn the First world war, Turkey lost the war. Britain removed the powers of Sultan of Turkey. The Sultan of Turkey was the head of the Muslims throughout the world. The Khilafat Movement was organized by the Ali brothers- Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali. The Khilafat leaders put pressure upon the British government to give better treatment to Turkey. Through this demand, Muslims were drawn into the national movement in large numbers.'Khilafat Day' was observed on October 17, 1919, on an all-India scale.
Rowlatt Act, 1919Rowlatt Act was officially known as the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, 1919. It was passed in March 1919 by the Imperial Legislative Council. This act authorised the British government to arrest anybody suspected of terrorist activities. It also authorised the government to detain such people arrested for up to 2 years without trial. It empowered the police to search a place without a warrant.
Jalianwala Bagh tragedyA large but peaceful crowd gathered at the Jalianwala Bagh in Amritsar on April 13, 1919, to protest against the arrest of Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr. Satya Pal. Jalianwala Bagh had only one exit and its other three sides were enclosed by buildings. General Dyer surrounded the Bagh with his soldiers and ordered them to shoot at the crowd. About one thousand innocent demonstrators were killed in this massacre.
Objective of Non-Cooperation MovementThe objectives of the Non-Cooperation Movement were:
i) To attain self-government within the British Empire.
ii) Annulment of the Rowlatt Act and remedying the 'Punjab wrong'.
iii) Remedying the 'Khilafat wrong'.
Suspension of the non- cooperation movementOn February 4, 1922, a mob of people gathered to picket a liquor shop at Chauri Chaura, a town near Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh. The Police tried to disperse the crowd. The police fired and killed 3 people. The outrageous mob set the Police Chauki on fire and all 22 Policemen got burnt alive. Gandhi felt that the revolt was veering off-course. The revolt had lost its non-violent nature. He did not want the movement to degenerate into a contest of violence. So he called off the non-cooperation movement.
Formation of Swaraj PartyIn February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggles. Within the Congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics
Explain the causes that led to the non-cooperation movementThe following circumstances led to the Non-Cooperation Movement:
i) Khilafat Movement: It was started by the Ali Brothers in August 1920 for the preservation of the office of Khalifa (Caliph), the religious head of the Muslims.
ii) The Rowlatt Act: The Act came as a sudden blow to the Indians who were expecting self-governance. It was known as the Black Act and was criticised severely.
iii) Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy: On 13th April, 1919, one thousand innocent demonstrators were killed and many were wounded. General Dyer was responsible for the massacre. The conscience of the nation was shaken at the massacre of innocent people.
Introduction to Non-cooperation Movement and its ImpactThe Non-cooperation Movement started on 5th September 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi. The objective of the Non-cooperation Movement was to become self-government and independence as the Indian National Congress. The British government was against this movement. Non-cooperation movement was followed by the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 14th April 1919 and the Rowlatt Act of 21st March 1919. Non-cooperation movement ended suddenly after the Chauri Chaura incident in February 1922 says Jawaharlal Nehru in his autobiography.
Impact of the Non-cooperation Movement:
Due to the Non-cooperation movement, the National Movement became a mass movement. It instilled new confidence among the people. It transformed Indian National Congress from a deliberative assembly into a moral fighting force. It fostered Hindu-Muslim unity by merging the Khilafat movement with this movement. It shattered the myth that the British rule was for the betterment of the Indians. It promoted social reforms.
Discuss the activities during non-cooperation movementThe nation enthusiastically responded to the call of Gandhiji. Many Indians returned their titles, degrees, awards and honours. Thousands of Indians left their government jobs. The use of Swadeshi and Khadi became popular.
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