Northern Plains of India

Geography

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Plains of Northern India

The northern plain has been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems, namely the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. This plain spreads over an area of 7 lakh sq. km. The plain being about 2400 Km long and 240 to 320 Km broad, is a densely populated physiographic division. With a rich soil cover combined with adequate water supply and favourable climate it is agriculturally a very productive part of India.

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Punjab plains

The Punjab plain is a fertile alluvial low-land situated to the west of the Yamuna river and north of the Rajasthan desert. The region is formed of sediments brought by the Himalayan rivers. The plain is bounded by Shivalik ranges in the north, the Rajasthan desert in the south, Pakistan in the west and Delhi ridge in the east.

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Delta region

The Ganga-Brahmaputra delta is the world's largest delta. This delta is also known as the Sunderbans. It extends in the West Bengal and Bangladesh. It is one of the most fertile regions in the world and is called the Green Delta. The delta stretches from the Hooghly river to the Meghna river. It is approximately 350 km wide at the Bay of Bengal. Kolkata and Haldia are the principal ports on the river banks in delta of India.

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The Ganga plains

Extend from- Yamuna river in the west to the western borders of Bangladesh. Distance covered- 1400 km. Regions- Ganga-Yamuna doab, Awadh plains and Mithila Plains. Both bhabar and terai belts are well formed in the Uttar Pradesh plain. 

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Brahmaputra plains

Extend in Assam for about 640 km. Formed by deposits from Brahmaputra river and its tributaries. In some places, steeply rising hillocks are found. There are a  number of riverine islands- Majuli, the largest river island in the world.  The Brahmaputra Basin is sometimes said to be the continuation of the northern plains towards the east. 

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Significance of the Northern Plains

Most favourable for human settlement- fertile soil, many rivers and favourable climate. Many multi-purpose dams constructed- provision of water for irrigation, generate electricity. They hold social and religious significance- vast literature, art and architecture and sacred rivers. The rivers in the plains are navigable which allow easy transportation and thus, promote trade and commerce.