Singular NumberA noun that denotes one person or thing is said to be in the singular number.
For example: tree, book, animal, father
Plural NumberA noun that denotes more than one person or thing is said to be in the plural number.
For example: trees, animals, books, mothers
Formation of Plural Nouns by Adding '-s'Plural nouns may be formed by adding -s to the singular noun.
Singular - boy; Plural - boys
Singular - table; Plural - tables
Singular - dog; Plural - dogs
Formation of Plural Nouns by Adding '-es'Plural Nouns may be formed by adding -es to singular nouns which end with s, sh, ch, or x.
Singular - branch; Plural - branches
Singular - latch; Plural - latches
Singular - box; Plural - boxes
Formation of Plural Nouns by Adding '-es' to Nouns Ending in 'o'Plural nouns may be formed by adding -es to nouns ending in -o.
Singular - buffalo; Plural - buffaloes
Singular - tomato; Plural - tomatoes
Singular - tornado; Plural - tornadoes
Formation of Plural Nouns by Adding '-s' to Nouns Ending in 'o'Plural nouns may be formed by adding -s to nouns ending in -o.
Singular - photo; Plural - photos
Singular - logo; Plural - logos
Singular - piano; Plural - pianos
Formation of Plural Nouns by Changing 'fe' or 'f' to 'ves'Plural nouns may be formed by changing a noun ending in 'f' or 'fe' to 'ves'.
Singular - half; Plural - halves
Singular - knife; Plural - knives
Singular - leaf; Plural - leaves
Formation of Plural Nouns Ending in 'fe' or 'fe' in other casesSome nouns ending in 'f' or 'fe' take either 'ves' or 's' as their plural forms.
Singular - dwarf; Plural - dwarfs or dwarves
Singular - hoof; Plural - hoofs or hooves
Singular - scarf; Plural - scarfs or scarves
For some nouns ending in 'f' or 'fe', the plural noun is formed by adding an 's'.
Singular - chief; Plural - chiefs
Singular - handkerchief; Plural - handkerchiefs
Singular - cliff; Plural - cliffs
Formation of Plural Nouns by Changing 'y' to 'ies'Plural nouns may be formed for nouns ending in -y preceded by a consonant by changing -y to -ies.
Singular - army; Plural - armies
Singular - story; Plural - stories
Singular - city; Plural - cities
Formation of Plural Nouns by Changing the Inside VowelsPlural nouns may be formed by changing the inside vowels of the singular nouns.
Singular - man; Plural - men
Singular - goose; Plural - geese
Singular - tooth; Plural - teeth
Formation of Plural Nouns by Adding 'en'Plural nouns may be formed from singular nouns by adding 'en' to the singular.
Singular - ox; Plural - oxen
Singular - child; Plural - children
Formation of Plural Nouns by Keeping the Singular Noun UnchangedSome nouns remain unchanged in the singular and plural forms.
Singular - sheep; Plural - sheep
Singular - deer; Plural - deer
Singular - aircraft; Plural - aircraft
Nouns Used Only in the PluralSome nouns are used only in the plural.
For example: scissors, spectacles, suspenders, jeans, shorts, thanks, tidings
Nouns that Look Plural but are SingularSome nouns look plural but are, in fact, singular.
For example: mathematics, billiards, news
Collective Nouns Used as PluralsSome collective nouns are used as plurals though they are singular in form.
For example: poultry, cattle, people
Plurals of Compound NounsThe plural of compound nouns is formed by adding 's' to the principal word or by making the principal word plural in some other way.
Singular - father-in-law; Plural - fathers-in-law
Singular - passer-by; Plural - passers-by
Singular - salesman; Plural - salesmen
Plurals of Words from Other LanguagesNouns from other foreign languages keep their original plural form.
From Latin -
Singular - index; Plural - indices
From Greek -
Singular - crisis; Plural - crises
From Italian -
Singular - bandit; Plural - banditti
From French -
Singular - madame; Plural - mesdames
From Hebrew -
Singular - seraph; Plural - seraphim
Nouns with Two Plural Forms with Different MeaningsSome nouns have two plural forms with somewhat different meanings.
Singular - brother; Plural - brothers (sons of the same parent) or brethren (fellow members of a society or community)
Singular - cloth; Plural - cloths (pieces of cloth) or clothes (garments)
Nouns with Two Meanings in the Singular and One in the PluralSome nouns have two meanings in the singular and only one in the plural.
Singular - light (radiance or a lamp); Plural - lights (lamps)
Singular - people (men and women or a nation); Plural - peoples (nations)
Nouns with One Meaning in the Singular and Two in the PluralSome nouns have one meaning in the singular and two meanings in the plural.
Singular - colour (hue); Plural - colours (hues or the flag of a regiment)
Singular - quarter (fourth part); Plural - quarters (fourth parts or lodgings)
Nouns with Different Meanings in the Singular and PluralSome nouns have different meanings in the singular and the plural.
Singular - air (atmosphere); Plural - airs (affected manners)
Singular - iron (a kind of metal); Plural - irons (fetters/chains)
Plurals of Letters and NumbersPlurals may be formed from letters or numbers by adding an apostrophe and an 's.'
For example: The k's in the document are lightly printed.
Mind your p's and q's.
There are three 5's in fifteen.
Plurals of Abstract NounsAbstract nouns usually have no plurals. They are considered uncountable nouns.
For example: love, hope, patience
However, abstract nouns may occasionally appear in the plural. In these cases, they are being used as countable nouns.
loves - meaning, many things that are loved
hopes - meaning, many things that are hoped for
Noun Number AgreementThe number of nouns in a sentence must agree with other nouns and verbs in the same sentence. Questions regarding this will test you in the case of words like 'neither', 'either', 'both' and lists.
Neither John nor Barry is good at carpentry.
In this case, because 'neither' is used, the verb must take a singular form, i.e. 'is'.
Violet, indigo, blue and red are all colours in the rainbow.
In this case, the sentence refers to several colours, therefore the verb should be plural, i.e. 'are', and the following nouns should also be plural, i.e. 'colours'.
Number in the case of 'More Than One'The phrase 'more than one' is always followed by a singular noun.
More than one dress in the cupboard needs to be ironed.
He placed more than one vegetable in his fridge.
Number in the Case of 'One Of'The phrase 'one of' is always followed by a noun in the plural.
One of the men refused to sign the document.
He visited one of his neighbours last Tuesday.
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