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Peninsular Plateau of India

Geography

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Peninsular Plateau of India

The Peninsular plateau is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land and thus, making it a part of the oldest landmass. The plateau has broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills. This plateau consists of two broad divisions, namely, the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau. The part of the Peninsular plateau lying to the north of the Narmada river covering a major area of the Malwa plateau is known as the Central Highlands. The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada.

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The Vindhya Range

Extends from- Sasaram (Bihar) in the east to Jobat (Gujarat) in the west. Average elevation- 600 m in the centre, 500 m- east and west. Lava-ridden in the west. 

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Central plateaus of India

The triangular region to the south of Narmada river is known as the Deccan Plateau or Central Plateau. The Deccan Plateau is divided to following sub-regions:
 (1) Satpura range
(2) Maharashtra plateau
(3) Karnataka-telanga na plateau
(4) Eastern plateaus.

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The Satpura Range

Extends- Narmada Valley in the north to Tapti Valley in the south. Eastern section called- Maikala Plateau. Average elevation- 1030 m. Northern and southern borders composed of sandstone.

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The Aravalis

800 km range. Extends- north-east- south-west of India. One of the oldest fold mountain ranges of the world.  Highest point- Guru Shikhar peak of the Abu hills. Height in the northern stretch- Less than 400 m, Above 900 m elsewhere.

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North-eastern, Kathiawar and Cutch Plateaus

Kathiawar and Cutch plateaus: These peninsulas are joined to the peninsular plateaus by Gujarat plains. Deccan lavas make up the Kathiawar region.
North-eastern plateau: It is an extension of the main peninsular plateau and comprises the Meghalaya plateau consisting of the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills. These hills have been named after the tribal groups which inhabit this region.

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Deccan Plateau

The Deccan Plateau is triangular in shape and is India's largest plateau. It occupies land between the Western and the Eastern Ghats and the south of the Mahadeo, Maikal and Satpura ranges. The Deccan Plateau is divided into following sub-regions:
(1) Satpuda-Mahadeo-Maikal Range
(2) Maharashtra Plateau
(3) Karnataka-Telangana Plateau
(4) Eastern Plateaus.

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Significance of the Peninsular Plateau

One of the distinct features of the peninsular plateau is the black soil area known as DeceanTrap. This is of volcanic origin hence the rocks are igneous. Actually these rocks have denuded over time and are responsible for the formation of black soil. The Aravali Hills are highly eroded hills and are found as broken hills.