Physiography and Climate of Gujarat

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Location of Gujarat

The state of Gujarat is located in the western part of India. It is flanked by the Arabian Sea in the west. The state of Gujarat lies between North latitude and North latitude. Similarly, it lies between East longitude and East longitude.

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Boundaries of Gujarat

Gujarat has two types of boundaries: 1. Sea boundary 2. Land boundary.
The Arabian Sea lies to the west of Gujarat. The sea boundary is 1,600 km long and is the longest sea boundary among all states of India. The boundary has the Gulf of Khambhat and the Gulf of Kutch. The north-south length of Gujarat is 590 km and the east-west length is 500 km.

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Geographic Area of Gujarat

The geographical area of Gujarat is 196,024 sq. km which is only 6% of Indias total area. The land area of Gujarat is divided into four parts: 
1. North Gujarat; 
2. South Gujarat; 
3. Central Gujarat; 
4. Saurashtra - Kutch.

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Physiographic features of Gujarat

Physiography refers to the various land forms. The physiography of Gujarat state is varied. We can divide it into five parts.
1. Plains
2. Hilly and Mountainous Areas
3. Plateaus
4. Deserts
5. Coastal Plains

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Plains of Gujarat

The major part of Gujarat consists of plains. These plains are made up of alluvial soil and are so very fertile. The plains of south Gujarat and central Gujarat are more fertile. The population is also very dense here.

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Hilly and Mountainous Areas of Gujarat

The hills and mountains are divided into three regions:
1. Tal Gujarat Hills
2. Saurashtra Hills
3. Kutch Hills

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Plateaus of Gujarat

Plateaus are landforms which are higher than the sea level and are flat like plains in the upper part. The middle part of Kutch and Saurashtra are plateaus. The plateau of Saurashtra is high in the middle while sloping and low towards the sea shore.

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Deserts of Gujarat

The deserts of Kutch are not sandy but full of salt. From a distance, on a moonlit night, the area looks like a white bedcover.

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Coastal plains of Gujarat

Gujarat state has a coastline of 1,600 km which is very useful for international trade. During the past, international trade was carried out through the ports of Khambhat, Ghogha, Bharuch and presently through the port of Kandla.

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Climate of Gujarat

Gujarat experiences variations in climate. Maximum part of land of Gujarat lies in the Torrid Zone. So, it experiences hot summers and cold winters. The sea shores of Gujarat experience less heat in summer, less cold in winter and more rainfall during monsoon. So it is said to have moderate climate. The shores experience oceanic climate.

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Characteristics of climate of Gujarat

Winter: The temperature is low in almost all the places of Gujarat from December to February. Generally, the atmosphere is cold during winter season. Minimum temperature is experienced in winter season in January. Cold and stormy winds blow from the Central Sea over Gujarat due to which some parts of Gujarat experience little bit of rainfall (shower) called Mavthu in Gujarati.

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Summer season in Gujarat

Summer: The temperature remains high from March to May in Gujarat. Highest temperature is experienced in May. In many parts of Gujarat, temperature reaches up to 45C. The temperature is moderate near the coastal areas due to waves and tides.

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Monsoon in Gujarat

Monsoon: After May, due to the south-west monsoon winds, the proportion of humidity increases in the air and it results in rainfall from June to September and is known as the Rainy Season. From the 2nd or 3rd week of June, the monsoon season starts with thunder and storm. Sometimes, the wind blows at the speed of 100 km/hr. Such cyclonic winds cause heavy destruction near the coastal areas.