A simple pendulum has a heavy point mass (known as bob) suspended from a rigid support by a massless and inextensible string. When the bob from its mean position is pulled to one side and then released, the pendulum is set to motion and the bob moves alternately on either side of its mean position.
Terms related to Simple Pendulum
These are important terms pertaining to simple pendulum: 1. Oscillation: One complete to and fro motion of the pendulum is called one oscillation 2. Time period: This is the time taken to complete one oscillation. 3. Frequency of oscillation: It is the number of oscillations made in one second.
Effective Length of Pendulum
It is the distance of point of oscillation (i.e. the centre of gravity of the bob) from the point of suspension.
Working of Simple Pendulum
Construction : A simple pendulum consists of a small metallic ball or a piece of stone suspended from a rigid stand by a thread [Fig(a)]. The metallic ball is attached to the pendulum called bob. Working :Fig(a) shows the pendulum at rest in its mean position. When the bob of the pendulum is released after taking it slightly to one side, it begins to move to and fro [Fig (b)]. The to and fro motion of a simple pendulum is an example of a periodic or an oscillatory motion. The pendulum is said to have completed one oscillation when its bob,starting from its mean position O, moves to A, to B and back to O. The pendulum also completes one oscillation when its bob moves from one extreme position A to the other extreme position B and comes back to A.
Bob : A simple pendulum consists of a small metallic ball or a piece of stone suspended from a rigid stand by a thread called the bob of the pendulum. Time period of pendulum doesn't depend on the size or mass of the pendulum, it depends on the length of the pendulum and factor of earth's gravity.