In the First world war, Turkey lost the war. Britain removed the powers of Sultan of Turkey. The Sultan of Turkey was the head of the Muslims throughout the world. The Khilafat Movement was organized by the Ali brothers- Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali. The Khilafat leaders put pressure upon the British government to give better treatment to Turkey. Through this demand, Muslims were drawn into the national movement in large numbers.'Khilafat Day' was observed on October 17, 1919, on an all-India scale.
Rowlatt Act, 1919
Rowlatt Act was officially known as the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, 1919. It was passed in March 1919 by the Imperial Legislative Council. This act authorised the British government to arrest anybody suspected of terrorist activities. It also authorised the government to detain such people arrested for up to 2 years without trial. It empowered the police to search a place without a warrant.
Jalianwala Bagh tragedy
A large but peaceful crowd gathered at the Jalianwala Bagh in Amritsar on April 13, 1919, to protest against the arrest of Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlu and Dr. Satya Pal. Jalianwala Bagh had only one exit and its other three sides were enclosed by buildings. General Dyer surrounded the Bagh with his soldiers and ordered them to shoot at the crowd. About one thousand innocent demonstrators were killed in this massacre.