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The Seasons in India

Geography

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Winter season

The cold weather season begins from mid-November in northern India and stays till February. December and January are the coldest months in the northern part of India. During this season, the northeast trade winds prevail over the country. They blow from land to sea and hence, for most part of the country, it is a dry season.

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Summer season

Due to the apparent northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts northward. As such, from March to May, it is hot weather season in India. The influence of the shifting of the heat belt can be seen clearly from temperature recordings taken during March-May at different latitudes. In March, the highest temperature is about 38 Celsius, recorded on the Deccan plateau. In April, temperatures in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are around 42 Celsius. In May, temperature of 45 Celsius is common in the northwestern parts of the country. 

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Seasons of India

The monsoon type of climate is characterized by a distinct

seasonal pattern. The weather conditions greatly change from one season to the

other. Four main seasons can be identified in India the cold weather season,

the hot weather season, the advancing monsoon and the retreating monsoon.

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Hot dry summer season

Due to the apparent northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts northward. As such, from March to May, it is hot weather season in India. The influence of the shifting of the heat belt can be seen clearly from temperature recordings taken during March-May at different latitudes. In May, temperature of 45 Celsius is common in the northwestern parts of the country. In peninsular India, temperatures remain lower due to the moderating influence of the oceans.

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Retreating monsoon season

The south-west monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually during October-November. By the beginning of October, the monsoon withdraws from the Northern Plains. The months of October-November form a period of transition from hot rainy season to dry winter conditions. The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature.

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Advancing monsoon

The

Monsoon, unlike the trade winds, are not steady winds but are pulsating in nature. They are affected by different atmospheric conditions

encountered by it on its way over the warm tropical seas. The monsoon arrives

at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula by the first week of June.

Subsequently, it divides into two the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of

Bengal branch. The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai about ten days later on approximately

the 10th of June. This is a fairly rapid advance. The Bay of Bengal branch also

advances rapidly and arrives in Assam in the first week of June.