Water Scarcity and the need for Water Conservation

Geography

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Water resources in India

Nature has endowed India with plentiful water resources. These resources account for four percent of the world's water resources. Besides surface water, i.e., from rivers, lakes, ponds and tanks and groundwater resources, India has a vast coastline with indented coasts in some states. 

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Need of conservation of water

We need to conserve water for the following reasons:
i) Overexploitation of underground water results in the lowering of water table.
ii) The loss of vegetation causes drought and reduction of rainfall.
iii) Irrigation utilises more than 90% of the total fresh water.
iv) Increased population has led to water scarcity.
v) Our water resources like rivers, lakes, etc. are polluted and can hardly be used without adequate treatment.

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Multiple uses of water

Humans use huge amounts of water not only for drinking and washing but also in the process of production. Water is being used for irrigation, hydro-electric power generation, industry, domestic use, transportation, fisheries and also for recreational purposes. 

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Reason of Water Shortage

Two - third portion of earth is covered with salty water and  one-third part is land.But still we are listening the news of water shortage in different places. The main reasons of water shortage are following:
  1. Excessive urbanisation and construction for which forests are cleaned.
  2. Excess waste of water in household work.
  3. Less rainfall due to pollution.
  4. Less awareness towards protection of lakes, river and other water bodies.
  5. Increase in water and air pollution.

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Water shortage

The three main reasons for water shortage are:

(1) Population growth 

(2) Insufficient investment in water treatment facilities,

(3) Diminishing groundwater supplies due to over-extraction.