Wildlife and Their Conservation
Species based on IUCNBased on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), we can classify species as follows:
(i) Normal Species
(ii) Endangered Species
(iii) Vulnerable Species
(iv) Rare Species
(v) Endemic Species
(vi) Extinct Species.
Indian fauna India is rich in its fauna. It has more than 89,000 of animal species. The country has more than 1200 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the worlds total. There are 2500 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the worlds stock. It also shares between 5 and 8 per cent of the worlds amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
Wildlife sanctuaries in IndiaCorbett National Park, Uttarakhand, Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan, Bandipur National Park, Karnataka, Keoladeo Ghana National Park Bharatpur, Rajasthan, Sariska National Park, Rajasthan, Kaziranga National Park, Assam, Manas National Park, Assam, Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka, Rajaji National Park, Uttarakhand
Unclassified forestsThe forests which are dense and unapproachable and the ones which are not classified are known as unclassified forests. Farming or cattle grazing is not permitted here. These forests occupy 16.4% area out of the total forest area.
Classification of forest according to their densityForests are classified into three categories according to their density.
1. Dense forest: This type of forests are found in some mountainous region and regions with heavy rainfall. About 59% of the total area of forests is this type of forests.
2. Open forests: In India, we have 40% of the total forest area, covering open forests.
3. Mangroves: These forests (tidal forests) are found on the coastal areas of India. The mangroves are less than 1% in India.
Reasons for destruction of forests and extinction of vegetationFollowing are the reasons responsible for destruction of forests and extinction of vegetation.
1. Man is highly responsible for the destruction of forests. He destroys the jungle for his benefit.
2. Human urge to acquire more land.
3. To get raw material for industries.
4. To get wood for building construction.
5. To develop roads, airports, and railways.
6. To make multipurpose projects and canals.
7. To establish new settlements.
8. Man cuts trees for jhoom farming.
Besides, acid rain, forest fire are some of the reasons for deforestation.
Some Unique Birds of IndiaIndia is unique and varied. Various species of birds are found in India. Some of these birds are unique. They include Mynah, cuckoo, parrot, weaverbird, woodpecker, bulbul, crane, kalkaliyo, peacock, flamingo, etc. Other than Latin America, such variety of birds is not found elsewhere.
Reasons for destruction of wildlifeMan has created danger to the existence of wildlife by activities like hunting, to satisfy is ego, for adventure and for economic purposes. Wild animals are gradually becoming extinct. Wildlife is also damaged due to different types of pollution, urbanisation, noise of vehicles, and due to the selfish motives of man. As a result, it has become very important to preserve wildlife.
Ways to preserve wildlifeEfforts have been made for the protection of wildlife by Wildlife Preservation Board, National Parks, Sanctuaries, Reserves, etc. Following the recommendation of the Indian Wildlife Board, the Parliament has passed 'Wildlife Protection Act'. It prohibits the hunting of animals coming under different protected lists.
Measures for protection of wildlife1. It is necessary to stop cruelty to wild animals and activities like hunting. Relevant laws should be followed strictly. The provision for penalty and punishment should be made strict.
2. It is necessary to keep a balance of herbivorous and carnivorous animals. Therefore, Census should be conducted time and again.
3. Forests provide natural protection to wildlife. Therefore, we should stop the destruction of forests and thereby saving the animals from becoming homeless.
4. Knowledge should be given to people for the protection of wildlife by explaining the importance of wildlife.
5. Many animals and vegetation is destroyed due to forest fire. Therefore, quick and solid efforts should be made for extinguishing the fire.
6. Efforts should be made for timely medical treatment of wild animals against diseases.
7. Sanctuaries, National Parks and Reserves should be developed.
Celebration of different days for wildlife protection21 March - World Forestry Day
5 June - World Environment Day
July - Van Mahotsav
2 to 9 October - Wildlife Week
4 October - World Animal Welfare Day
29 December - World Biodiversity Day
Animals and National Parks in Madhya PradeshMadhya Pradesh is rich in forest wealth. Thirty percent of the total land is covered with forests in which a variety of wild animals are found. Blackbuck, leopard, chinkara, monkey, bluebull, spotted deer, sambhar, tiger, bear, alligator, crocodile, turtles and the great Indian bustard are the main wild animals and birds of Madhya Pradesh.The names of national parks in Madhya Pradesh are as follows:
Direct benefits of forestsDirect benefits of forests: They give us timber, fuel, wood, fodder, raw material for small and cottage industries, valuable minor products (fruits, flowers, grass and leaves) and raw materials for medicines. It is a main source of livelihood for many people.
Indirect benefits of forests
Indirect benefits of forests: Indirect benefits are more important than direct benefits. Forests are essential part of our nature and culture. They increase human values, provide spiritual strength, entertainment and recreation.
1. Forests affect the temperature of the air. Control the speed of wind and control the climate helping rainfall.
2. Forests control floods and soil erosion by controlling the flow of rivers.
3. Forests increase the fertility of soil by adding humus formed by the decomposition of the leaves and branches of the trees.
4. Forests are natural habitat of birds and animals.
5. Forests are the symbols of natural beauty.
6. Forests are the source of natural balance.
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