Patterns of problems
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Acids, Bases And Salts

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1
Pattern- Indicators
Description
Indicators are substances whose solutions change colour after being exposed to an acid or a base. There are also indicators that change their smell on exposure to an acid or base, they are known as olfactory indicators.
Indicators can be classified as Natural or Synthetic indicators based on the source from which they are obtained.
How to approach
Questions are generally related to their colour change when exposed to an acidic or basic condition. To solve such questions, you should thoroughly be aware of all the indicators and their respective colour changes.
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2
Pattern- Reaction of Metals with Acid and Bases
Description
Acids react with most metals to produce respective salts and hydrogen gas.
Hydrogen gas burns with a pop sound when a splinter is brought near it.
Bases generally do not react with metals. But some metals like Zinc and Aluminum react with bases to produces their respective salt and hydrogen gas.
How to approach
Questions are generally asked to identify the products formed and writing the chemical equations. You can solve such questions with ease, if you recall the general reactions of acids and bases with metals.
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3
Pattern- Strength of Acid and Bases
Description
On the pH scale, acids are indicated by values , bases are indicated by values and pH = 7 indicates that the solution is neither acidic or basic; but is neutral.
Lower the pH value higher is the acidity and higher the pH value higher is the basicity.
How to approach
Questions are based on identification of substances as acidic or basic based on their pH value. To solve these questions, you must be familiar with the pH scale and know the significance of the pH value.
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4
Pattern-Important compounds made from Common salts
Description
There are many important compounds that are made from common salt: baking soda, washing soda, sodium hydroxide and bleaching powder. They are prepared chemically from common salt and find many uses in our daily life.
How to approach
Questions related to these compounds are generally based on the methods of their preparation and uses. To solve these questions, you should be thorough with the chemical formula, the method of preparation and uses of these compounds.
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