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Aldehydes, Ketones And Carboxylic Acids

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1
Naming with Ease
There are three different types of compounds in this chapter (aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids), each with its own common and IUPAC system of nomenclature. Most questions related to nomenclature give the structure and ask you to write the common name, IUPAC name or both. With so many different rules and different functional groups, it can get confusing to recall at the time of examination.
Let's simplify the nomenclature of aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids so you can answer such questions in no time:
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Check out these stories for more clarity on this topic:
Nomenclature of Aldehydes
2 mins
Nomenclature of Ketones
2 mins
Common and Iupac Nomenclature of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acid
3 mins
Now, time for some practice:
The IUPAC name of is:
A
2-sec-butylbutanal
B
2,3-diethylbutanal
C
2-Ethyl-3-methyl-pentanal
D
3-methyl-2-ethylpentanal
The IUPAC name of the given compound is :
A
4-hydroxy-2-pentanone
B
2-hydroxy-4-pentanone
C
2-oxo-4-pentanol
D
4-keto-2-pentanol

What is the IUPAC name for the following compound?
A
3-methylpentanoic acid
B
isohexanoic acid
C
-methylvaleric acid
D
2-methylpentanoic acid
2
Aldol and Cross-Aldol Condensation
Carbonyl compounds with at least one -hydrogen undergo aldol condensation to form -hydroxy aldehydes (aldol) or -hydroxy ketones (ketol). This is the aldol reaction.
The aldol or ketol thus formed through aldol reaction readily loses water to give ,-unsaturated carbonyl compound. This process is called aldol condensation. The ,-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are aldol condensation products. Students can get confused between aldol reaction and aldol condensation. You need to remember that the two are different, and aldol condensation happens in two parts: an aldol reaction and a dehydration reaction.
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If the aldol condensation is carried out between two different aldehydes or ketones, it is called cross aldol condensation. One important thing to note here is that if both the reactants contain -hydrogen atoms, a mixture of four products is obtained.
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Let's brush up with a few stories to understand aldol, cross aldol and intramolecular aldol condensation:
Aldol Condensation - Reaction and Mechanism - I
3 mins
Aldol Condensation - Reaction and Mechanism - II
3 mins
Crossed Aldol Condensation
3 mins
Intramolecular Aldol Condensation
3 mins
Some quick practice now!
3

Nucleophilic Addition Reaction of Aldehydes and Ketones

Nucleophilic addition reactions of aldehydes and ketones and their examples are one of the most important topics of this chapter. Aldehydes are more reactive than ketones in these reactions. To understand the mechanism of nucleophilic addition reaction and the reason for difference in reactivity of aldehydes and ketones to these reactions, watch these videos:
Video
Nucleophilic Addition Reactions
3 mins
Video
Why are aldehydes more reactive than ketones?
6 mins
Here's a story to revise the concept:
Story
Nucleophilic Addition Reactions of Aldehyde and Ketone-I
3 mins
Let's try some questions now: