Patterns of problems
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Biological Classification

- Hit the perfect ace in exams by getting acquainted with the different ways or patterns of the questions asked for a particular concept
Pattern: Classification of Organisms
Description: Biological classification is the scientific procedure that involves the arrangement of the organisms in a hierarchical series of groups and sub-groups on the basis of their similarities and dissimilarities. The first man to attempt a scientific basis of classification was Aristotle. Two kingdom system of classification was introduced by Linnaeus . In the year 1866, Ernst Haeckel, classified living organisms into three kingdoms. The four kingdom classification system, proposed by Copeland, included Monera. R.H. Whittaker proposed five kingdom system. In the year 1990, Carl Woese came up with the Six Kingdom Classification System.
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Pattern: Kingdom Monera
Description: Monera includes prokaryotes which have the following characters: unicellular, predominant mode of nutrition is absorptive but some groups are photosynthetic (holophytic) and chemosynthetic. organisms are non-motile or move by the beating of simple flagella or by gliding, They are found everywhere.
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Pattern: Kingdom Protista
Description: We place all single-celled eukaryotes under Protista. However, the boundaries of this kingdom are not well defined. Members of Protista are primarily aquatic. This kingdom forms a link with the others dealing with plants, animals and fungi. Some have flagella or cilia. Protists reproduce asexually and sexually by the process involving cell fusion and zygote formation. It may be photosynthetic or holotrophic. These could also be saprotrophic, parasitic and symbionts also.
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Pattern: Kingdom Fungi
Description: Fungi are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts, moulds and mushrooms. The organisms found in Kingdom fungi contain a chitinous cell wall. They are classified as heterotrophs among the living organisms. This kingdom includes classes like Phycomycetes/Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Dueteromycetes
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Pattern: Kingdom Animalia and Kingdom Plantae
Description: Kingdom Plantae includes organisms that contain chlorophyll and are eukaryotic. Algae and plants comprise Kingdom Plantae. Plant cells possess cell wall. These are autotrophic in nature. Some of them are partially heterotrophic - insectivorous plants. The life cycle of plants has two distinct phases that alternate with each other. This phenomenon is called alternation of generations. Animals are classified on the basis of arrangement of cells, body symmetry, nature of coelom, pattern of digestive, circulatory and reproductive system, presence of notochord. Kingdom Animalia is divided into various phyla like Porifera, Coelenterata (Cnidaria), Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Aschelminthes, (Nemotoda), Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Chordata
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Pattern: Virus, Viroids, Lichens
Description: The viruses are non-cellular organisms. Once they infect a cell, they take over the machinery of the host cell to replicate themselves, killing the host. In 1971 T.O. Diener discovered a new infectious agent. This agent was more minute than the viruses. It lacked the protein coat that is found in viruses. Hence, the name viroid. The RNA of the viroid was of low molecular weight. Lichens are symbiotic associations i.e. mutually useful associations, between algae and fungi. The algal component is called phycobiont and the fungal component is what we call as mycobiont.
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