Patterns of problems
8 min read


- Hit the perfect ace in exams by getting acquainted with the different ways or patterns of the questions asked for a particular concept!
Pattern - Biomolecules
Description - Biomolecules, also known as biological molecules, are substances that are produced by cells and living organisms. Biomolecules include both micromolecules, like amino acids, nitrogenous bases, amino acids, sugar, etc. and macromolecules, such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids.
All the macromolecules are polymers. Proteins- Polymer of amino acids. Carbohydrates (Polysaccharides)- Polymer of simple sugars, e.g. glucose, fructose. Fats- Fatty acids and glycerol. Nucleic acids- Nitrogenous bases, sugar and phosphate.
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Pattern - Primary and Secondary Metabolites
Description- Amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, etc. are called primary metabolites, which take part in the physiological processes. Apart from these, there are various compounds present in the cells of plants, fungi and microbes, which are called secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolites can be grouped under various categories: Pigments (anthocyanins, carotene, etc.), drugs (curcumin, vinblastine, etc.), gum, rubber, toxins (ricin, abrin), alkaloids (codeine, morphine), essential oils, terpenoids, lectins (concanavalin A), etc
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Pattern - Proteins and Amino acids
Description - Proteins perform many vital functions in living organisms. Proteins are present as enzymes, hormones and tissue fibres. Some of the protein molecules also take part in transportation across a membrane and also fight infection. Protein is a heteropolymer of amino acids. Proteins are also known as polypeptides.
Amino acids are organic compounds. Amino acids are categorized into two types:
  • Essential amino acids that are required through diet. There are 9 essential amino acids: valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, lysine, histidine, methionine and threonine
  • Non-essential amino acids are formed inside the body and include glycine, alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, asparagine, cysteine, glutamine, glutamic acid, serine, proline and tyrosine
  • Amino acids can be basic (lysine), acidic (glutamic acid) or neutral (valine).
  • Tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine are aromatic amino acids.
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Pattern -Structure of Protein
Description- The primary structure of the protein is a long chain of amino acids in a specific sequence. The amino acid chain starts from N' and ends with C'. Amino acids are linked by C-N peptide bonds. The peptide bond is formed between the carboxyl (-COOH) of one amino acid and the amino group (-NH2) of another amino acid. Primary structure folded to form secondary structure. Hydrogen bonds are responsible for the formation of secondary structure. -helix and -pleated sheets are secondary structures of proteins. The tertiary structure of a protein is highly folded. It is a three-dimensional organisation, which is required for optimum activity. The quaternary structure of a protein is made up of many polypeptide chains or subunits. For E.g. Haemoglobin consists of 4 subunits, 2 subunits each of and type.
Question -
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Pattern - Lipids
Description- Fat, oil, wax, steroid, cholesterol are all lipids. They play an important role in metabolism. They are high energy-yielding compounds. Lipids are water-insoluble and an important component of the cell membrane. Monoglycerides, diglycerides and triglycerides are esters of fatty acids with glycerol and are known as fats. A fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long carbon-hydrogen chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Essential fatty acids are not formed in the body, e.g. linoleate whereas non-essential amino acids are produced in the body. Some lipid has phosphorus and a phosphorylated organic compound in them, these are called phospholipids. Phospholipids are present in the membrane, e.g. lecithin. Steroids are present as hormone and have a tetracyclic structure.
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Pattern - Carbohydrates
Description- Carbohydrates are polymers of monosaccharides or simple sugars. They are the main energy source of plants and animal cells. Carbohydrates are divided majorly as simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates are made up of one or two simple sugar units, whereas complex carbohydrates are made up of many sugar units. Simple carbohydrates can be of two types: monosaccharides and disaccharides. Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates, containing many simple sugar units.
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Pattern - Nucleic Acid
Description - Nucleic acids are found in all living cells, including virus (DNA or RNA). DNA and RNA contain genetic information. They are also known as polynucleotides, a polymer of nucleotide. A nucleotide has three components: a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar and a phosphate group. There are two types of nitrogenous bases: Purine: Adenine and Guanine, Pyrimidine: Thymine, Cytosine and Uracil. DNA contains deoxyribose sugar and RNA contains ribose sugar molecules. Nitrogenous base attached to sugar is called nucleoside. Phosphate group is attached to sugar by the ester bond. Nucleosides with attached phosphates are called Nucleotides.
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Pattern- Enzymes
Description - Enzymes catalyse metabolic reactions in our body. Most of the enzymes are proteins except ribozymes, which are RNA, Enzymes have an active site which is like a pocket into which the specific substrate fits. Enzyme along with substrate forms an ES complex, which is converted to EP complex and then the product is released with unchanged enzymes. Enzyme activity is regulated by temperature, pH and concentration of the substrate. Enzyme activity is also regulated by the presence of other specific substance that binds to the active site, thus inhibiting the enzyme activity.
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