Patterns of problems
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Body Fluids And Circulation

- Hit the perfect ace in exams by getting acquainted with the different ways or patterns of the questions asked for a particular concept!
Pattern: Blood Description: The blood is fluid connective tissue that helps the body to transport food, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc. It consists of majorly two things - Blood corpuscles + Plasma. The blood corpuscles or cells include RBCs, WBCs, and cellular components like blood platelets. The RBCs are the non-nucleated cells that transport oxygen. The WBCs are the cells that protect the body against infection and the blood platelets help in blood coagulation.
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Pattern: Lymph Description: Lymph is a pale white fluid that flows through a system called lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymph fluid. This whole system helps in protecting our body from illness-causing invaders, maintaining body fluid levels, absorbing digestive tract fats and removing cellular wastes. Unlike the circulatory system, the lymphatic system is not closed. The lymph fluid moves slowly by the action of smooth muscles and skeletal muscles.
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Pattern: Heart Description: Heart is the center of the circulatory system. It is a muscular pump about the size of a closed fist, slightly left of the thoracic cavity, just below the cardiac notch of the left lung. The wall of heart is composed of three layer: - Epicardium (the outer layer), Myocardium (the middle layer), and Endocardium (the inner layer). The whole heart is divided into four chambers - upper chambers are called Atria (Sing. Atrium) and lower chambers are called Ventricles. Vertically, the heart is divided by septum. There are valves present between the atria and ventricles; Tricuspid valve is present between the right atrium and ventricle while Mitral valve is present between the left atrium and left ventricle.
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Pattern: Circulatory Pathway Description: Blood inside the human body circulates in a double circulation manner. These two circulation through the heart are: Pulmonary circulation and Systemic circulation. The pulmonary circulation involves the Heart Pulmonary artery Lungs Pulmonary vein Heart. The systemic circulation involves the Venae Cavae Heart Pulmonary Circulation Heart Aorta Rest of the Body.
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Pattern: Conduction System of the Heart Description: In the heart, there is autonomic mechanism that generates and transmits signal that helps the heart in beating regularly. This system is called the conduction system of the heart. It is a network of specialized cardiac muscle cells that initiate and transmit the electrical impulses. These special cells form the nodal tissue which is able to generate an action potential on its own (self-excitation) and pass it on to other nearby cells (conduction). The pathway through which signal transmits include SA node AV node Bundle of His Bundle branches Purkinje fibers.
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Pattern: Evolution of the Heart Description: The human heart has evolved a long way, starting from a single-layered tube to a 4-chambered fully functional pumping machine that runs whole life without resting. It evolved from 2-chambered in fishes to 3-chambered in amphibians to 4-chambered in mammals.
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Pattern: ECG Description: ECG or Electrocardiograph helps in diagnosing different heart conditions by checking and recording the electrical activity of the heart in the form of PQRST Wave. The P-wave means depolarisation of atria, QRS complex stands for the depolarisation of the ventricles, and T-wave stands for the ventricular repolarisation. ECG can be used to detect heart attack, Angina, Arrhythmia, etc.
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Pattern: Heart Disorders Description: Heart works incessantly but sometimes, the heart may stop pumping blood due to some malfunctioning due to some conditions. Such conditions are Coronary heart disease, Heart failure, Arrhythmia,etc.
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