Patterns of problems
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Chemical Control And Integration

- Hit the perfect ace in exams by getting acquainted with the different ways or patterns of the questions asked for a particular concept
Pattern: Introduction to Endocrine System
Description: The endocrine system is made up of glands that secrete hormones. A messenger system comprising feedback loops of the hormones released by internal glands of an organism directly into the circulatory system, regulating distant target organs.
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Pattern: Hormones
Description: Hormones are the chemical messengers that are secreted by the endocrine glands directly into the bloodstream. Through the blood, these hormones in animals reach their target organs to stimulate or inhibit specific physiological processes. There are around 20 major hormones in animals that are released by the endocrine glands into the blood, playing a major role in many of the physiological processes happening in the body.
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Pattern: Pituitary Gland
Description: The pituitary gland is the master endocrine gland located between the hypothalamus and the pineal gland in a depression called sella turcica in the sphenoid bone. The pituitary gland has two parts, namely, the anterior pituitary which produces hormones that affect the adrenal glands, thyroid, ovaries, mammary glands, and testes, etc. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus which predominantly act on kidneys, uterus, etc.
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Pattern: Adrenal Glands
Description: The adrenal glands are a pair of glands located over each kidney. These endocrine glands secrete various hormones like adrenaline, noradrenaline, corticoids like glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Adrenal glands are also known as 'Emergency glands'.
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Pattern: Pineal Gland and Thymus Gland
Description: The pineal gland, conarium, or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the brain of most vertebrates. It produces melatonin hormone that regulates the sleep patterns.
Thymus gland is located in the upper chest region beneath the breastbone in front of the heart. It is closely associated with the immune system than the endocrine system. It grows in size until puberty and then starts to shrink as we age. It secretes hormones only till pre-pubescence.
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Pattern: Pancreas and Thyroid Gland
Description: Pancreas secrete two important hormones, insulin and glucagon. Both work together to maintain the glucose levels in the blood.
Thyroid gland produces the thyroxine hormone, which controls the metabolic rate in the body. It also plays a role in the bone growth, development of the brain and nervous system in children. Iodine is important for the synthesis of thyroxine.
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Pattern: Hormones in Human Reproduction
Description: The gonads are the human reproductive organs - Ovaries and Testes. Ovaries are present in females and produce estrogen and progesterone. Testes are present in males and produce testosterone hormone.
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Pattern: Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract
Description: Some non-endocrine tissues are also involved in secretion of hormones.
Heart: Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) also called atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), is a peptide hormone which is secreted by cardiac cells of the body.
Kidney: Erythropoietin is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney. Its function is to trigger the RBC production in the bone marrow, especially when the oxygen level in the blood reduces.
Gastrointestinal Tract: Hormones secreted by endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are Gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP).
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