Hots Questions
8 min read


- Sharpen the thinking skills by attempting the given HOTS!
The parietal cells also known as oxyntic cells and sometimes even referred as delomorphous cells, are found in the lamina of propria layer of mucosa wall of the fundic part of the stomach epithelium. They are responsible for producing the hydrochloric acid and maintain the low pH in the stomach. What would happen if something goes wrong with these parietal cells? Think...
If for some reason the parietal cells of the gut epithelium become partially nonfunctional, what is likely to happen:
Pancreatic enzymes, specially trypsin and lipase will not work efficiently.
Proteins will not be adequately hydrolysed by pepsin to proteoses and peptones.
pH of stomach will fall abruptly.
Steapsin will not be effective.
Every cell in the human body contains protein. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development. What could be the symptoms of protein deficiency and what would be the treatment suggested?
A patient had stunted growth, swelling on face, discolouration of hair and skin disease. Doctor advised him to eat a lot of pulses, grams, egg white, milk, etc. What is wrong with the patient? Explain.
The duct system of liver, gall bladder and pancreas is very crucial in bring all the digestive enzymes and secretions to the duodenum. It includes of ducts from liver, ducts from gallbladder, pancreatic duct, and hepato-pancreatic duct. The hepato-pancreatic duct is formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct. What would happen if for some reason this duct gets nonfunctional?
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Given below is a diagrammatic representation of the duct systems of the liver, gall bladder, and pancreas. If the duct labeled 'A' is blocked, which of the following will not occur in the body? 
Secretion of bile juice from liver
Concentration of bile juice
Formation of bile juice
Digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
The gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid, pepsin and mucus. All these components have specific functions. What could possibly go wrong, if gastric juice is devoid of mucus?
What will happen if the mucus is not secreted by the gastric glands?
Intestinal villi are tiny, finger-like projections made up of cells that line the entire length of your small intestine. They dramatically increase the surface area and  absorb nutrients from the food that we eat and then shuttle those nutrients into our bloodstream so they can travel where they're needed. But wait, we do not have them in our stomach. Can you think why?
Why are villi present in the intestine and not in the stomach?
The digestive juice in the stomach has presence of hydrochloric acid which is highly corrosive. The stomach protects itself from this corrosive acid with a thick layer of mucus on its inner wall. Without the mucus layer, the acid might damage the stomach. But have you ever thought why such a corrosive acid is produced in the stomach? Also, what would happen if it is not produced?
What would happen if is not secreted in the stomach?
Dysentery is an infection of the intestinal tract. Symptoms include watery stools, cramps and weakness. The doctors usually prescribe lots of fluid and electrolytes to the patients experiencing dysentery. Why so?

During dysentery people feel a sense of weakness. What could be the reason?

Have you ever been asked by your parents or elders, not to talk while eating? Have you ever thought why?
Two friends are eating together at a dining table. One of them suddenly starts coughing while swallowing some food. This coughing would have been due to improper movement of: