Patterns of problems
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Digestion And Absorption

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Pattern:Histology of Alimentary Canal
Description: The anatomy of human alimentary canal exhibits four layers. These are:
  1. Serosa: The outermost layer made up of squamous epithelium and areolar connective tissue.
  2. Muscularis: It is composed of outer longitudinal and inner circular muscle fibres. Muscles fibres are smooth and have a network of nerve cells.
  3. Submucosa: It consists of loose connective tissue richly supplied with blood and lymphatic vessels.
  4. Mucosa: The innermost layer lining the lumen of the alimentary canal. It has irregular foldings called rugae in the stomach and villi in the small intestine. Mucosa forms glands in the stomach (gastric glands) and crypts in between the bases of villi in the intestine (Crypts of Lieberkuhn)
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Pattern: Digestion of Food
Description: Carbohydrates, fats, proteins and nucleic acids occur in food in the form of large and complex insoluble macromolecules (polymers). These macromolecules are converted into small monomers by the action of enzyme and thus the process of digestion is accomplished. Here is a list of chemical processes that occurs in our gastrointestinal tract.
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Pattern: Absorption and Assimilation of Digested Food
Description:Absorption: The given table gives an idea of the absorption of food in different parts of alimentary canal.
Column 1 Column 2
Mouth Certain drugs coming in contact with the mucosa of mouth and lower side of tongue are absorbed into the blood capillaries lining them.
Stomach Absorption of water, simple sugar and alcohol takes place.
Small intestine Glucose, fructose, fatty acids, glycerol and amino acids are absorbed through the mucosa into the blood stream and lymph.
Large intestine Absorption of water, some minerals and drug takes place.
Assimilation: The process of synthesizing the biological compounds (macromolecules) from the absorbed simple molecules is called
assimilation. It helps in the cell growth and development and new cell production.
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Pattern: Digestive Glands
Description: The digestive glands associated with the alimentary canal includes:
Salivary Glands: Secrete saliva in oral cavity. In human beings there are three pairs of salivary glands -
(i) Parotid (ii) Sublingual (iii) Submaxillary.
Gastric glands: There are approximately 35 million of gastric glands present in the human stomach.
The gastric glands (fundic glands) secrete acid and digestive enzymes. Secretion of gastric glands is called gastric juice.
Intestinal glands: They secrete intestinal juice or succus entericus.
Liver: It is the largest gland in human body located in upper right side of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm. It weighs about 1.2 to 1.5 kg in an adult human.
The bile secreted by the hepatic cells passes through the hepatic ducts and is stored and concentrated in a thin muscular sac called the gallbladder and the process is called choleresis.
Pancreas: It consists of exocrine and endocrine portion. The exocrine portion secretes alkaline pancreatic juice and endocrine secretes hormones insulin and glucagon.
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Pattern: Disorders of Digestive System
Description: Digestive system disorders also include Jaundice, Vomiting, Diarrhoea, Acid Reflux, Constipation, Appendicitis, Indigestion, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Gallstones, Hemorrhoids, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Lactose Intolerance, Stomach Ulcers, PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition), etc.
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