Patterns of problems
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Human Health And Disease

- Hit the perfect ace in exams by getting acquainted with the different ways or patterns of the questions asked for a particular concept!
Pattern: Disease and its Types
Description: 'Disease' means the functioning of one or more organs or systems of the body, is adversely affected. It is characterized by appearance of various signs and symptoms. On the basis of mode of transmission, diseases are of two types: Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Pathogens are disease-causing organisms and on the basis of pathogens, diseases can be of various types: Bacterial diseases - E.g. Pneumonia; Fungal diseases - E.g. Ringworm; Diseases caused by worms - E.g. Elephantiasis; Protozoan diseases - E.g. Malaria; Viral diseases - E.g. common cold.
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Pattern: Immunity
Description: Immunity is the ability of the body to protect against all types of foreign bodies like bacteria, virus, toxic substances, etc. which enter the body. There are two types of immunity: Innate (Non-specific) and Acquired immunity (specific). There are two types of immune response under acquired immunity: Cell-mediated immune response (involves T-cells) and humoral response (involves B-cells). B-cells produce antibodies that are Y-shaped structures made up of two heavy and two light chains. Antibodies bind with antigens and activate the immune system.
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Pattern: Active and Passive Immunity
Description: Active immunity is developed by an individual's own cells in response to an infection or a vaccine. Passive immunity is developed when ready-made antibodies are inoculated from outside.
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Pattern: Vaccination
Description: Vaccination is the introduction of any kind of dead or weakened germs into the body of a living being to develop immunity (resistance) against the respective disease or diseases.
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Description:Allergy is the hypersensitiveness of a person to some foreign substances (allergens) coming in contact with or entering the body. Allergy is due to the release of chemicals like histamine and serotonin from the mast cells, which get activated when IgE antibodies bind with the allergen.
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Pattern: Immune System
Description: The immune system consists of lymphoid organs (primary lymphoid organs like bone marrow and thymus and secondary lymphoid organs like spleen, tonsils, Peyer's patches, etc.), lymphoid tissue, lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels, that play a role in generating immune responses.
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Pattern: AIDS
Description: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease that affects the immune system of the body. AIDS is caused by HIV, i.e. Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV on entering the host cell, uses the host's machinery to replicate itself and produce more viruses. The viruses attack T-helper cells which leads to the decrease in immune response. HIV infection can be detected by ELISA test. AIDS does not spread by contact.
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Pattern: Cancer
Description: Cancer is an abnormal and uncontrolled division of cells, known as cancer cells that invade and destroy the surrounding tissues. Cancer cells lose the property of contact inhibition. Uncontrolled division of cells leads to formation of mass of cells called tumors. Tumors are of two types: Benign (cause little damage and do not spread to other parts of the body) and malignant (cancer cells spread - metastasis, and hence cause huge damage to the body). Cancer is caused due to activation of genes called proto-oncogenes, that are present in the normal cells. various physical, chemical and biological agents, activate these genes. Cancer can be diagnosed via - Biopsy, MRI, CT scan, Radiography, antigen-antibody interaction, molecular biology tools. Cancer can be cured by surgery, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, chemotherapy.
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Pattern: Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Description: Drug is any substance or product that is used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient. Now, excessive use of drugs and alcohol leads to drug and alcohol abuse. Drugs are of various types: opiates (from poppy plant), cannabinoids (from Cannabis), cocaine (from coca plant) etc. Excess use of tobacco may lead to tobacco abuse. Adolescence is a very vulnerable phase of mental and psychological development of an individual therefore, during this time, adolescents tend to get attracted to drugs, alcohol and tobacco. Excessive misuse of drugs and alcohol can lead to addiction and dependence (causing withdrawal syndrome). Effects of drug and alcohol can be reckless behaviour, vandalism, violence, various life-threatening diseases, death, etc. Prevention and control of drug and alcohol abuse can be achieved by avoiding undue peer pressure, education and counselling, seeking help from parents, peers, professional and medical help and looking for danger signs.
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