Patterns of problems
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Plant Kingdom

- Hit the perfect ace in exams by getting acquainted with the different ways or patterns of the questions asked for a particular concept
Pattern: Thallophyta
Description: Thallophyta is the plant division that consists of Algae. They contain photosynthetic pigments and are thus autotrophic. They exhibit simple, thalloid structure and are majorly aquatic. These algae can exist in colonial or filamentous forms and can reproduce vegetatively, asexually or sexually. Thallophytes have been broadly categorized into phaeophyceae (brown algae), rhodophyceae (red algae) and chlorophyceae (green algae).
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Pattern: Bryophyta
Description: Bryophytes are the 'amphibians of plant kingdom'. These include liverworts and mosses and are majorly located in moist, shady areas in hills. They can live on soil but sexual reproduction requires presence of water for transfer of gametes. Plant body is haploid which is thallus-like and prostate or erect. Unicellular or multicellular rhizoids attach them to the substratum. Though they lack truly vascularized structures, they show leaf-like, stem-like and root-like structures.
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Pattern: Pteridophyta
Description: Pteridophytes are the first group of terrestrial plants to show well-differentiated vascularization i.e. xylem and phloem tissues are present. The main plant body is sporophytic and is differentiated into true roots, stem and leaves. Spore mother cells in sporangia produce spores by meiosis, which germinate to produce small, multicellular, free-living & majorly photosynthetic prothallus. The expanse of pteridophytes is restricted to only few geographical locations as they require cool, damp and shady places to grow. Pteridophytes are either homosporous or heterosporous and development of zygote into young embryo occurs within the female gametophyte, which is a pre-cursor for seed habit.
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Pattern: Reproduction in Gymnosperms
Description: Gymnosperms are plants with naked seeds. They are heterosporous, bearing haploid microspores and megaspores. These are produced within the sporangia that are borne on spirally arranged strobili or cones. Male strobili bears microsporophylls and microsporangia whereas, the female strobilli bears the megasporophylls with megasporangia (ovules). Microspores develop into highly reduced male gametophytic generation (pollen grains) which further develop in microsporangia. Megaspore mother cell differentiates from one of the nucellus cells, which is protected by the ovule. Megaspore mother cell undergoes meiotic division to form megaspores, one of which develops into multicellular female gametophyte bearing two or more archaegonia.
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Pattern: Classification of Angiosperms
Description: Angiosperms are classified into Monocotyledons (monocots) and Dicotyledons (dicots).
  • Properties of Monocotyledons:
    1. Single cotyledon
    2. Parallel venation of leaves
    3. Trimerous flowers
  • Properties of Dicotyledons:
    1. Two cotyledons
    2. Reticulate venation of leaves
    3. Tetramerous or pentamerous flowers
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