Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices And Simple Circuits
- A simple way to visualize theories through diagram
Difference between energy bands of a) metals, b) insulators and c) semiconductors.
(a) Generation of hole at site 1 and conduction electron due to thermal energy. (b) Representation of possible thermal motion of a hole. The electron from site 2 goes to the earlier hole site 1, indicating an apparent movement of the hole from site 1 to site 2.
(a) p-n junction diode under forward bias
(b) Barrier potential (1) without battery, (2) low battery voltage, and (3) high battery voltage.
(a) Diode under reverse bias, (b) Barrier potential under reverse bias.
Experimental circuit arrangement for studying V-I characteristics of a p-n junction diode a) in forward bias, b) in reverse bias. c) Typical V-I characteristics of a silicon diode.
(a) Half-wave rectifier circuit, (b) Input ac voltage and output voltage waveforms from the rectifier circuit.
a) A Full-wave rectifier circuit; b) Input wave forms given to the diode D1 at A and to the diode D2 at B; c) Output waveform across the load RL connected in the full-wave rectifier circuit.
(a) A full-wave rectifier with capacitor filter, (b) Input and output voltage of rectifier in (a).
Zener diode as DC voltage regulator
(a) An illuminated photodiode under reverse bias , (b) I-V characteristics of a photodiode for different illumination intensity I4>I3>I2>I1
(a) Typical p-n junction solar cell; (b) Cross-sectional view.
(a) A typical illuminated p-n junction solar cell; (b) I-V characteristics of a solar cell.