Patterns of problems
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The Living World

- Hit the perfect ace in exams by getting acquainted with the different ways or patterns of the questions asked for a particular concept!
Pattern: Characteristics of Living Beings
Description: Organisms which show characteristics of life are called living beings.The major characteristics of living organisms are:
Definite shape and size
Cellular organization
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Pattern: Hierarchy of Classification
Description: The process of arranging living organisms in a hierarchical groups and sub-groups is called biological classification. According to the modern system of classification created by Carolus Linnaeus, there are seven taxonomic categories.
  • Kingdom - Topmost taxonomic category.
  • Phylum/Division - Phylum is used for animals while its synonym division is used for plants.
  • Class - Group of more than one orders.
  • Order - Many similar families constitute to an order.
  • Family - A group of similar genera.
  • Genus - A group of similar species.
  • Species - Group of population, who can reproduce among themselves.
They are arranged in the order of which the characters goes from general to specific.
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Pattern: Binomial Nomenclature
Description: The system of writing the scientific name is called binomial nomenclature. The scientific name has two parts; genus and species. The name is written in Latin. It is written either in italics or they should be underlined after writing. Remember, while underlining, do not underline the space in between the genus and species.
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Pattern: Taxonomic Aids: Herbarium
Description: Taxonomical aids are the collections of samples or preserved organisms which help in extensive research for the identification of various taxonomical hierarchy. A herbarium is a reference collection consisting of carefully selected and dried plants attached to paper sheets of a standard size and field in a systematic way so that they may be easily retrieved for examination.
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Pattern : Taxonomic Aids: Botanical Garden
Description: A botanical garden is an educational institution for scientific workers and laymen to awake interest in plant life. It represents a collection of living plants designed chiefly to illustrate relationships within plant groups. They provide facilities for collection of living plant material for systematics studies and constitutes reservoirs of valuable heritable characteristics, potentially important in the breeding of new varieties of plants.
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Pattern: Taxonomic Aids: Zoological Parks
Description: A zoological park is a place where various living animals are kept within enclosures, displayed to public and may be used for study. They are involved in the rescue of many species of threatened animals with extinction.
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Pattern: Taxonomic Aids: Museum
Description: Museums have collection of preserved plants and animals for study and reference. They are involved in the acquisition, recording, preservation, research, exhibition and education of the materials collected.
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Pattern: Taxonomic Aids: Keys
Description: A Key or taxonomic key is an artificial analytical device having a list of statements with dichotomic table of alternate characteristics which is used for identifying organisms. They are of two types:
  1. Indented key: It contains sequence or choices between two or more characteristics.
  2. Bracketed key: It uses contrasting characters like the indented one but they are not separated by intervening subdividing characters.
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