Species living in the same area have similar characters. Let's see how
Organisms can change according to the needs of the environment and habitat.
When unrelated organisms obtain the same features due to adaptation. i.e., similar structure and function. It is called analogy.
This development of similar adaptation for living in similar habitats is called Adaptive convergence.
It is also called as Convergent evolution or Parallel evolution.
It is the living of an organism with different body forms in the same habitat.
They don’t have similar characters but have the same body forms (superficial structure) only for adaptation purposes.
It leads to the formation of new forms that are similar to their ancestors.
It is best explained with few examples. Let's see.
The development of wings in insects is the most common example.
The other examples are flying reptiles, birds and flying mammals.
Each organism belongs to different groups but shows the same ancestry.
The development of wings for flight is a common feature in all of these different forms.
Another common example is of marsupials and mammals.
We are going to know more examples to understand it better.
Marsupials were evolved in Australia while placental mammals (eutherians) in other islands.
Both marsupials in Australia and mammals in other islands present parallel evolution.
This Adaptive convergence shows that each eutherian mammals are similar to marsupials variety.
For example the eutherian moles similar to the marsupial moles.
The other example is of a eutherian wolf similar to a Tasmanian wolf.
Such examples can also be seen in aquatic animals
The least common example is of aquatic vertebrates.
It consists of all marine animals i.e., cartilaginous fishes, bony fishes, aquatic reptiles, dolphins, tortoises, seals, and whales, etc.
All of these forms are from different groups but have similar types of fins and flippers for swimming purposes.
When organisms of different groups have a similar habitat they get similar features also.
It is best explained in the case of marsupials in Australia and mammals in other islands.
Organisms get adapted to one environment for one habitat.
It results in the origin of new forms that resemble in appearance to the already existing forms.