Adrenal Gland and disorders

The adrenal gland is one of the Endocrine glands that produce various hormones needed for the body.

The adrenal gland is located on top of the kidney

It is located on the top of both the kidneys as a Cap

It is 4 to 6 cm long and 2 to 3 cms wide

Let's Learn about adrenal gland in detail

Adrenal Glands consist of two sections, mainly adrenal Outer cortex & inner medulla

Adrenal Cortex secretes hormones needed for the regulation of blood pressure and volume.

The hormones also help in nutrients storage, electrolyte balance and regulation of the immune system

The Adrenal Cortex has 3 regions: Zone Glomerulosa, Zone Fasciculata and Zona Reticularis

Adrenal Medulla secrete amine hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine that regulates homeostasis

Let's learn about the different hormones produced by the Adrenal Cortex

Zone Glomerulosa is the superficial region of cortex produces a group of hormones called mineralocorticoids

Aldosterone is one of the major mineralocorticoids

Mineralocorticoids are essential for maintaining body fluids and electrolyte balance

Zona Fasciculata is the middle region of cortex that produces a hormone called glucocorticoids which helps in the breakdown of stored nutrients

The innermost region of cortex in zona Reticularis which produces steroid hormones needed for adolescence

Let's learn about the functions of the adrenal gland

Releasing hormones is the major function of the adrenal gland

Various hormones are secreted into the bloodstream, which is the basic function of the adrenal gland

Apart from the secretion of hormones adrenal gland take care of balancing stress levels

Stress can be physical like injuries, malnutrition or Psychological like having a bad day

Other functions include maintenance of blood sodium and glucose level.

Let's learn about the disorders due to malfunctioning of adrenal glands

Cushing Syndrome also called hypercortisolism is the common disorder of adrenal gland

It occurs due to the high production of hormones called cortisol. Abnormal obesity is the result of this syndrome

Aldosteronism disorder occurs due to hyperactive adrenal glands

This disorder will increase the sodium levels and decrease potassium levels in the blood. This will lead to blood pressure and volume

In Adrenal virilism, people develop characteristics of the opposite sex

In this disorder males imbibe female characters and females imbibe male characters like Voice change

This disorder occurs due to high production of androgen or due to enlargement of the adrenal glands.

Other disorder are pigmentation of skin, decrease resistance to infection, and uncontrollable stress levels


Adrenal gland in an endocrine gland. It is a major organ in producing vivid hormones.

These hormones are needed for the functioning of other organs

Malfunctions of Adrenal gland may result in Cushing Syndrome which causes abnormal obesity

Aldosteronism:- increase in sodium levels, decrease in potassium level resulting in high blood pressure

Adrenal virilism:- imbibes opposite sex characteristics

The End