Agriculture and Types of Crops

Cars and bikes need energy to run. Fuel, that is petroleum in this case provides energy to run them.

When petrol is exhausted, the car or bike stops moving and we have to refill the petrol.

Like these cars and bikes, we too need energy to perform different activities.

We obtain energy from food. The food acts as fuel to living beings which keep them active throughout the day.

Energy is also needed to perform different functions like digestion, respiration, excretion, etc.

Let us understand how do we get food.

Plants prepare their own food in their green parts using sunlight, carbon dioxide and water. The process is called photosynthesis.

Plant is the source of food for every living being, either directly or indirectly.

We humans either eat plants or their products or animals or both.

Human population is so large.

To make sure each one of us eat, we cannot wait for the plants to grow naturally. Hence, they need to be cultivated according to the need.

Let us find out how cultivation practice came into existence.

Early people us to wander from place to place in search of food and shelter.

They ate raw fruits and vegetables and hunted animals.

Around 10,000 BC, they started settling down. With time they learned to grow crops. They started cultivating wheat, barley, rice.

Thus, agricultural practice came into existence.

"When plants of the same kind are cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop".

There are various types of crops like cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits.

India is a vast country with varying climatic conditions across the states.

Even the soil condition varies throughout the country.

Because of these factors variety of crops are grown in India.

Crops can be classified on the basis of seasons.

Let us find out different types of crops based on seasons.

Inspite of varieties, crops have been broadly divided into: Kharif crops and Rabi crops.

Kharif crops are sown in rainy season, generally from June to September.

Examples of Kharif crops are paddy, maize, soyabean, groundnut and cotton.

Rabi crops are grown in winter season - between October to March.

Examples of Rabi crops are wheat, gram, pea, mustard and linseed.

Pulses are grown in summer in many places.

Production of crops is not easy as it involves various stages or steps. These steps are referred as 'agricultural practices'.


Plants prepare their own food. Animals depend on plants for food either directly or indirectly.

Crops are broadly divided into: 1) Kharif crops - sown in rainy season 2) Rabi crops - grown in winter season

Thank you