Agriculture and Types of Farming
Agriculture is the most important reason for the survival of Human Civilisation even after 6000 years.
Agriculture forms the basis of other activities because man has invented it for his survival.
Agriculture is a primary activity, which produces the food that we consume. It also produces raw material for various industries.
Types of Farming
There are two types of Farming- Subsistence (to support livelihood) & Commercial ( to sell in market).
Subsistence means to support life so this farming is done for self survival. It is of 2 types: Primitive and Intensive.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
Farmer is cultivating with the help of his family members using simple tools and natural fertility of soil.
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. Farmers clear a patch of land and produce crops to sustain their family.
When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation.
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming involves labours, High Yield Variety seeds, Fertilisers, modern tools and irrigation.
Right of Inheritance that is passing on of father's land to next generations made the land size smaller.
Now farmers try to take maximum output from same land and this had put great pressure on agricultural land.
This farming is done to export the produce in international market and industries to make profit.
In this farming HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers, pesticides etc. are used for higher productivity.
Degree of commercialization vary from state to state. Let us understand.
As Rice is the subsistence crop of Odisa and Tamilnadu but it is commercial in Punjab and Haryana.
It is a type of commercial farming in which a single crop (mainly tea, coffee, banana, sugarcane, rubber etc.) is grown on a large area.
This type of farming requires essential things like
Large number of labours
Modern tools and technology with HYV seeds, fertilizers and pesticides.
Good network of transport and communication connecting plantation areas, industries and markets.
Let us Revise
There are two types of farming; in which the subsistence uses traditional methods while the commercial goes with modern methods.
Subsistence is also known as shifting cultivation and Jhum cultivation in North- East India.
Commercial Farming is basically done for selling the crop and to export in international markets and industries.