Age composition, sex ratio and literacy rate are the three important characteristics of the population.

These characteristics help to understand the population in a better way and also help government to make policies.

Let us first discuss age composition

The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.

Age composition is one of the most basic characteristics of population.

To understand age composition better, let us take a look at the average Indian family- yours, for instance!

You and your siblings must be children or teenagers. Your mother and father are adults, while your grandparents must be of old age.

So the age composition of a nation is basically - Children, Working age (Adults) and aged.

Let us discuss each three of them in detail

The first category is children, which are below 15 years of age.

They must be provided with food, healthcare and shelter, and cannot work for a living.

The second category is the working class, which is from the 16-59 year range.

They are biologically active and contribute economically, and provide support to their families.

Those above 59 years of age form the older aged class.

They are normally retired but can work if they wish to.

Sex Ratio in India

Sex ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males.

It is actually an important indicator of equality between males and females of a country.

Unfortunately, the sex ratio in India has been unfavourable to females for most of our history.

As of 2011, the sex ratio is 943 females to 1000 males in India.

As population density varies from state to state, so does the sex ratio.

Kerala, for instance, has a sex ratio of 1084, while Delhi has a sex ratio of just 866 females per 1000 males.

Literacy rates

Education is one of the most important phases of a person’s life!

This is why literacy rates are such a crucial characteristic of any country’s population.

After all, if people are literate, they will be able to make better and more informed choices. Be it for choosing the government or choosing higher studies.

A literate person is one aged above 7 years, who can read, write, and understand any language.

As per 2011 data, the literacy rate in India is 74 percent.

Much like the sex ratio, literacy rates have been unfavourable for females.

According to 2011 census, the male literacy rate is at 80.9 percent, and only 64.6 percent for females in India.

It is unfortunate that these differences still exist in our country. We should try our best to learn why and minimize this gap between genders.


Three important characteristics of population are age composition, sex ratio, and literacy rate.

Indian age composition is usually divided into three categories- children, working age, and older aged persons.

The sex ratio is defined as number of females per 1000 males in a country. For India, it is at 943, according to 2011 census.

It is an important indicator of equality between the two genders.

Literacy rates are important characteristics of population, since educated citizens can make better choices.

According to 2011 data, the Indian literacy rate is at 74%, with male literacy at 80.9%, and female literacy at 64.6%.

It is unfortunate that the differences between males and females exist to this day in India.