Company Expansion

Sumit's grandfather was a great historian and every day he told great stories of our past.

One day he gave Sumit an old coin which had 'East India Company' written on it.

He decided to tell him how the East India Company came in as traders became the rulers of our country.

Let us see how the company rule expanded.

After capturing Bengal, the British decided to nog attack any other Indian state directly and used other ways to capture Indian states.

So, Richard Wellesley introduced the system of Subsidiary Alliance in 1798 to capture the Indian territories without wars.

Many conditions were imposed under this system on Indian rulers.

This helped the Company to expand the territory and create an influence on Indian politics and the economy.

The British succeeded in capturing many countries but the Maratha and Tipu Sultan gave them a tough fight.

Let’s get to know about Tipu Sultan.

Tipu Sultan was Hyder Ali's son and was known as the ‘Tiger of Mysore’

In 1785, Tipu stopped the export of sandalwood, pepper, and cardamom through the ports of his Kingdom.

Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan fought four wars with the Company.

Tipu Sultan died in the fourth war, in Seringapatam, in 1799 and the British captured his kingdom.

Let’s discuss the war with the Marathas

The Marathas were a great part of Indian History. Their dream of ruling from Delhi was broken.

Mahadji Sindhia and Nana Phadanavis were two Maratha soldiers and statesmen who tried to keep the Marathas united.

The Marathas fought 3 wars with the British. In the third Anglo-Maratha war, the British crushed the Maratha Power.

The company removed the Peshwa and sent him to Bithur. Peshwa was the head of Marathas.

Now, the company had complete control over the territories of the south to the Vindhyas.

Along with Subsidiary Alliance, the Company started a policy called ‘paramountcy’. As per this policy, the company could claim its authority as supreme or paramount.

According to Paramountcy, the company could claim its authority as supreme or paramount.

Let’s understand the claim to paramountcy

After Mysore and Maratha, Punjab was the next target of the British company.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a very powerful ruler of Punjab. After his death, the new Rajas were weak.

It took the Britishers only two wars known as Anglo- Sikh wars to annex Punjab in 1849.


The British Company was planning to expand its territories. The Battle of Buxar was the one important phase of their victory over the nawabs of India.

After this, they applied ‘Subsidiary Alliance’. This helped the company expand its territory. With Subsidiary Alliance, the British took most of the states of India under their control.

But Marathas and Tipu Sultan gave them a tough fight. Finally, it took the Company 4 wars to capture Mysore and 3 wars to capture Marathas.

In Punjab, Maharaja Ranjit Singh opposed the British. But after his death, Punjab was annexed finally and the British became the supreme power.

The End