Current in Conductors

It is very difficult at night without the lights.

Without a light source, working at night is impossible.

For doing work, we need energy. Similarly, the bulb also needs some energy to glow.

Energy to a bulb is provided by an energy source.

That energy source is the household electricity supply, which makes the bulb glow.

For the energy to travel from the source to the bulb in the circuit, there must something which carries it.

The task to transport the electric energy through the circuit is done through the flow of electric current.

Electric current helps transport the energy from the source to the appliance in a circuit.

So, the medium through which current travels is an electric wire.

These wires are made up of specific metals. These metals have the property of conducting electricity.

A conductor is a material that allows the flow of charge.

There are two types of charges: +ve (proton) and -ve (electron).

Among them, the -ve ones (electrons) majorly flow through a conductor.

These charges flow because of a force drawing them. And that force is the electrostatic force.

Electrostatic force generates an electric field.

When no electric field is present, the electrons move due to thermal motion.

When we connect a battery to the conductor, the flow of electrons is shown above.

As the electron is negatively charged, it gets attracted to the positive end of the battery.

The average velocity attained by electrons due to the electric field is known as drift velocity.

The direction of flow of this charge is from the positive to the negative end of the battery.

Current flows opposite to the direction of flow of electrons.

Using ohm’s law, we can get the magnitude of this current.

And the net flow of current through a conductor per unit time is measured in ampere.

Revision

Current in a conductor is the flow of charged particles through the conductor.

The potential difference generates an electric field which causes the flow of charges through a conductor resulting in the flow of current.

The direction of the flow of conventional electric current is opposite to the direction of flow electrons.

The magnitude of current can be obtained by ohm’s law.

The End