Education Sector in India

The education system in India dates back to where children were taught in Gurukuls.

Education in India was improved after universities like Nalanda, Takshashila, etc. were established.

Education is controlled and managed by the government, providing education to all.

Indian Constitution has committed free and compulsory education to children up to the age of 14.

Government Expenditure on Education

The expenditure of government on education can be expressed in % of total government expenditure or % of GDP.

The percentage of education expenditure in total expenditure shows its importance.

The percent of education expenditure of GDP shows the amount of income committed to developing education.

From 1952-2014, education expenditure as % of total government expenditure increased from 7.92 to 15.7.

Education expenditure as % of GDP also increased from 0.64 to 4.13.

The education expenditure is much higher after including private expenditures.

The major share is invested in elementary education as compared to higher education.

But the expenditure per student on tertiary education is higher than elementary.

In 2014-15, the per capita public expenditure on elementary education differed across states.

The expenditure was as high as Rs. 34,651 in Himachal Pradesh and as low as Rs. 4088 in Bihar.

This leads to a difference in educational opportunities and attainments across states.

Commissions for Development of Education

The Education Commission (1964-66) suggested spending at least 6% of GDP on education for growth.

The Tapas Majumdar Committee(1998) estimated expenditure of around Rs 1.37 lakh crore over 10 years.

This estimation was done to bring children of the age of 6-14 years under the purview of school education.

Currently, only 4% of the GDP is spent on education.

Government Measures to Promote Education

The Right to Education Act was enacted to make free education a fundamental right for children.

The Government has levied 2 percent of education cess on all Union taxes.

Also, the government introduced various schemes for students to pursue higher education.

Revision

Education is controlled and managed by the government, providing education to all.

The expenditure of government on education can be expressed in % of total government expenditure or % of GDP.

The major share is invested in elementary education as compared to higher education.

In 2014-15, the per capita public expenditure on elementary education differed across states. Currently, only 4% of the GDP is spent on education.

The Tapas Majumdar Committee (1998) estimated expenditure of around Rs 1.37 lakh crore over 10 years.

The Right to Education Act was enacted to make free education a fundamental right for children.

The End