Emergence of New Castes and Hierarchies

India is one of the world's oldest civilizations.

The main source of economy and income for the people in the ancient ages was agriculture.

There were also other people who were merchants, craftsmen, and others.

However, with the growing economy and needs of the people, new skills were required.

This generated many other occupations in society and led to the development of occupation-based society.

Many new smaller castes or jatis based on occupation emerged within the varna system.

Smaller castes or jatis emerged amongst the Brahmanas.

Many tribes and social groups were included and given status of jati in caste-based society.

Artisans like carpenters, smiths and masons were given the status of separate Jatis by Brahmanas.

Now, jatis became the basis of organising society rather than varnas.

By the 11th and 12th century, the Rajputs clan of Kshatriya caste emerged to be powerful.

These Rajput clans belong to different families like Hunas, Chalukyas, Chandelas and others.

They slowly replaced the older rulers in agricultural areas and used their wealth to create a powerful state.

This became an example for other tribal people to follow these Rajput clans.

Later, many tribes became the part of the caste system with the help of Brahmans.

But the problem was that only the leading tribal families could join the ruling class.

Apart from this, tribes of Punjab, Sind and North-West Frontier had adopted Islam.

The reason for their acceptance of Islam was the unequal social order in Hinduism. They did not believe in the caste system.

Revision

Many tribes and social groups were included and given status of jati in caste based society.

Jatis became the basis of organising society rather than varnas.

Specialized artisans – smiths, carpenters, and masons – were also recognized as separate jatis by the Brahmanas.

In Kshatriyas, new Rajput clans emerged. Many tribes joined the ruling powerful classes.

Rajputs slowly replaced the older rulers in agricultural areas and used their wealth to create a powerful states.

Later many tribal groups were recognized as jati with the help of Brahmans. But the problem was that only the leading tribal families could join the ruling class.

Apart from this, tribes of Punjab, Sind and North West Frontier had adopted Islam.

The reason for their acceptance of Islam was the unequal social order in Hinduism. They did not believe in the caste system.

The End