Emergence of New Towns and Traders

During 16th and 17th centuries, there was huge demand of spices in Europe.

The Indian spices and textiles were very popular in Europe and West Asia.

So, the English, Dutch, and French formed East India Companies to expand their trade in the east.

They faced competition by some of the Indian traders like Mulla Abdul Ghafur and Virji Vora who have large ships.

The European companies used their naval power to gain control of the sea route.

After gaining control, they made Indian traders work as their agents.

Ultimately, English emerged as the most successful commercial and political power in the subcontinent.

The demand for Indian textiles increased in Europe.

This led to the expansion of crafts of spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, etc.

Along with the increase in demand of textiles, the independence of craftsmen declined.

They were forced to work on advance that means they have to weave clothes promised to European agents.

The weavers were not allowed to sell their own clothes and weave their own pattern.

They had to make the designs supplied to them by the Company agents.

The increase in trade led to the development of new towns along with new traders.

During 18th century, cities like Bombay, Calcutta and Madras emerged as major trade centers.

European companies established Black towns in these cities were artisans and merchants were moved.

The black or native traders and craftspersons were confined in Black towns.

While, white rulers lived in superior residence of fort St. George in Madras or fort St. William in Calcutta.

Revision

Indian textiles and spices were in great demand in European markets.

The English, Dutch and French formed East India Companies to expand their commercial activities in the east.

Some of the great Indian traders like Mulla Abdul Ghafur and Virji Vora who owned a large number of ships competed with them.

Ultimately, English became the commercial and political power in the subcontinent.

The increasing demand for textiles good led to the expansion of crafts of spinning, weaving, bleaching, dyeing, etc.

Craftsmen were forced to work on the advance that means they had to weave clothes promised to European agents.

The increase in trade led to the development of new towns and Bombay, Calcutta and Madras emerged as major cities.

European companies established Black towns in these cities were artisans and merchants were moved. White towns were established for Europeans.

The End