Flower - A fascinating structure

Flowers have a different value on different occasions.

They are used for making garlands, without which no function appears complete.

Flowers play an important role in a plant’s life too as they help plants to reproduce.

Flowers can be seen in various shapes, sizes, and colours.

Let’s see the structure of a flower.

Morphologically a flower is a modified shoot whose internodes are condensed and leaves form four whorls.

Calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium are the four parts of a flower; these form the different whorls of a flower.

Calyx and corolla are the two outer whorls; also known as non-essential whorls as they do not take part in reproduction.

Let's study about non-essential whorls.

The outermost whorl is called calyx; it consists of green coloured sepals.

Its main function is to protect the flower at the bud stage.

Corolla is the whorl inner to calyx and is made up of petals.

The petals are mostly coloured, have fragrance and nectar to attract pollinators like insects, birds, etc.

The other two parts are androecium and gynoecium; these are male and female parts of the flower and are the essential whorls.

Let's study the essential whorls.

Androecium is the male reproductive whorl made up of stamens.

A stamen is made up of the anther (pollen sac) and filament (stock) and produce pollen grains which contain the male gametes.

The gynoecium is the female reproductive whorl made up of carpels.

The carpel is made up of stigma, style, and ovary. It is the innermost part of the flowers.

Let's study the functions of flowers.

Flowers bear the male gametes contained in pollen grains and the female gamete contained in the ovule.

Flowers attract different pollinators which help in pollination.

Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma.

The fusion of a male gamete with the female gamete in the ovary is called fertilization.

After fertilization, the ovary gets transformed into the fruit and the ovules into the seeds.

Revision

Flowers can be seen in various shapes, sizes, and colours.

Flowers are organs of reproduction in plants.

The flower is made up of four whorls of floral appendages;starting from the outermost to the innermost, the order is calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium.

Flowers bear the male gametes contained in pollen grains and the female gamete contained in the ovule.

Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma.

Fertilization is the union of the male and female gametes

The End